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    Ch. 3 - The Good Saxon, Alfred

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    Chapter 3
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    ALFRED THE GREAT was a young man, three-and-twenty years of age,
    when he became king. Twice in his childhood, he had been taken to
    Rome, where the Saxon nobles were in the habit of going on journeys
    which they supposed to be religious; and, once, he had stayed for
    some time in Paris. Learning, however, was so little cared for,
    then, that at twelve years old he had not been taught to read;
    although, of the sons of KING ETHELWULF, he, the youngest, was the
    favourite. But he had - as most men who grow up to be great and
    good are generally found to have had - an excellent mother; and,
    one day, this lady, whose name was OSBURGA, happened, as she was
    sitting among her sons, to read a book of Saxon poetry. The art of
    printing was not known until long and long after that period, and
    the book, which was written, was what is called 'illuminated,' with
    beautiful bright letters, richly painted. The brothers admiring it
    very much, their mother said, 'I will give it to that one of you
    four princes who first learns to read.' ALFRED sought out a tutor
    that very day, applied himself to learn with great diligence, and
    soon won the book. He was proud of it, all his life.

    This great king, in the first year of his reign, fought nine
    battles with the Danes. He made some treaties with them too, by
    which the false Danes swore they would quit the country. They
    pretended to consider that they had taken a very solemn oath, in
    swearing this upon the holy bracelets that they wore, and which
    were always buried with them when they died; but they cared little
    for it, for they thought nothing of breaking oaths and treaties
    too, as soon as it suited their purpose, and coming back again to
    fight, plunder, and burn, as usual. One fatal winter, in the
    fourth year of KING ALFRED'S reign, they spread themselves in great
    numbers over the whole of England; and so dispersed and routed the
    King's soldiers that the King was left alone, and was obliged to
    disguise himself as a common peasant, and to take refuge in the
    cottage of one of his cowherds who did not know his face.

    Here, KING ALFRED, while the Danes sought him far and near, was
    left alone one day, by the cowherd's wife, to watch some cakes
    which she put to bake upon the hearth. But, being at work upon his
    bow and arrows, with which he hoped to punish the false Danes when
    a brighter time should come, and thinking deeply of his poor
    unhappy subjects whom the Danes chased through the land, his noble
    mind forgot the cakes, and they were burnt. 'What!' said the
    cowherd's wife, who scolded him well when she came back, and little
    thought she was scolding the King, 'you will be ready enough to eat
    them by-and-by, and yet you cannot watch them, idle dog?'

    At length, the Devonshire men made head against a new host of Danes
    who landed on their coast; killed their chief, and captured their
    flag; on which was represented the likeness of a Raven - a very fit
    bird for a thievish army like that, I think. The loss of their
    standard troubled the Danes greatly, for they believed it to be
    enchanted - woven by the three daughters of one father in a single
    afternoon - and they had a story among themselves that when they
    were victorious in battle, the Raven stretched his wings and seemed
    to fly; and that when they were defeated, he would droop. He had
    good reason to droop, now, if he could have done anything half so
    sensible; for, KING ALFRED joined the Devonshire men; made a camp
    with them on a piece of firm ground in the midst of a bog in
    Somersetshire; and prepared for a great attempt for vengeance on
    the Danes, and the deliverance of his oppressed people.

    But, first, as it was important to know how numerous those
    pestilent Danes were, and how they were fortified, KING ALFRED,
    being a good musician, disguised himself as a glee-man or minstrel,
    and went, with his harp, to the Danish camp. He played and sang in
    the very tent of GUTHRUM the Danish leader, and entertained the
    Danes as they caroused. While he seemed to think of nothing but
    his music, he was watchful of their tents, their arms, their
    discipline, everything that he desired to know. And right soon did
    this great king entertain them to a different tune; for, summoning
    all his true followers to meet him at an appointed place, where
    they received him with joyful shouts and tears, as the monarch whom
    many of them had given up for lost or dead, he put himself at their
    head, marched on the Danish camp, defeated the Danes with great
    slaughter, and besieged them for fourteen days to prevent their
    escape. But, being as merciful as he was good and brave, he then,
    instead of killing them, proposed peace: on condition that they
    should altogether depart from that Western part of England, and
    settle in the East; and that GUTHRUM should become a Christian, in
    remembrance of the Divine religion which now taught his conqueror,
    the noble ALFRED, to forgive the enemy who had so often injured
    him. This, GUTHRUM did. At his baptism, KING ALFRED was his
    godfather. And GUTHRUM was an honourable chief who well deserved
    that clemency; for, ever afterwards he was loyal and faithful to
    the king. The Danes under him were faithful too. They plundered
    and burned no more, but worked like honest men. They ploughed, and
    sowed, and reaped, and led good honest English lives. And I hope
    the children of those Danes played, many a time, with Saxon
    children in the sunny fields; and that Danish young men fell in
    love with Saxon girls, and married them; and that English
    travellers, benighted at the doors of Danish cottages, often went
    in for shelter until morning; and that Danes and Saxons sat by the
    red fire, friends, talking of KING ALFRED THE GREAT.

    All the Danes were not like these under GUTHRUM; for, after some
    years, more of them came over, in the old plundering and burning
    way - among them a fierce pirate of the name of HASTINGS, who had
    the boldness to sail up the Thames to Gravesend, with eighty ships.
    For three years, there was a war with these Danes; and there was a
    famine in the country, too, and a plague, both upon human creatures
    and beasts. But KING ALFRED, whose mighty heart never failed him,
    built large ships nevertheless, with which to pursue the pirates on
    the sea; and he encouraged his soldiers, by his brave example, to
    fight valiantly against them on the shore. At last, he drove them
    all away; and then there was repose in England.

    As great and good in peace, as he was great and good in war, KING
    ALFRED never rested from his labours to improve his people. He
    loved to talk with clever men, and with travellers from foreign
    countries, and to write down what they told him, for his people to
    read. He had studied Latin after learning to read English, and now
    another of his labours was, to translate Latin books into the
    English-Saxon tongue, that his people might be interested, and
    improved by their contents. He made just laws, that they might
    live more happily and freely; he turned away all partial judges,
    that no wrong might be done them; he was so careful of their
    property, and punished robbers so severely, that it was a common
    thing to say that under the great KING ALFRED, garlands of golden
    chains and jewels might have hung across the streets, and no man
    would have touched one. He founded schools; he patiently heard
    causes himself in his Court of Justice; the great desires of his
    heart were, to do right to all his subjects, and to leave England
    better, wiser, happier in all ways, than he found it. His industry
    in these efforts was quite astonishing. Every day he divided into
    certain portions, and in each portion devoted himself to a certain
    pursuit. That he might divide his time exactly, he had wax torches
    or candles made, which were all of the same size, were notched
    across at regular distances, and were always kept burning. Thus,
    as the candles burnt down, he divided the day into notches, almost
    as accurately as we now divide it into hours upon the clock. But
    when the candles were first invented, it was found that the wind
    and draughts of air, blowing into the palace through the doors and
    windows, and through the chinks in the walls, caused them to gutter
    and burn unequally. To prevent this, the King had them put into
    cases formed of wood and white horn. And these were the first
    lanthorns ever made in England.

    All this time, he was afflicted with a terrible unknown disease,
    which caused him violent and frequent pain that nothing could
    relieve. He bore it, as he had borne all the troubles of his life,
    like a brave good man, until he was fifty-three years old; and
    then, having reigned thirty years, he died. He died in the year
    nine hundred and one; but, long ago as that is, his fame, and the
    love and gratitude with which his subjects regarded him, are
    freshly remembered to the present hour.

    In the next reign, which was the reign of EDWARD, surnamed THE
    ELDER, who was chosen in council to succeed, a nephew of KING
    ALFRED troubled the country by trying to obtain the throne. The
    Danes in the East of England took part with this usurper (perhaps
    because they had honoured his uncle so much, and honoured him for
    his uncle's sake), and there was hard fighting; but, the King, with
    the assistance of his sister, gained the day, and reigned in peace
    for four and twenty years. He gradually extended his power over
    the whole of England, and so the Seven Kingdoms were united into

    When England thus became one kingdom, ruled over by one Saxon king,
    the Saxons had been settled in the country more than four hundred
    and fifty years. Great changes had taken place in its customs
    during that time. The Saxons were still greedy eaters and great
    drinkers, and their feasts were often of a noisy and drunken kind;
    but many new comforts and even elegances had become known, and were
    fast increasing. Hangings for the walls of rooms, where, in these
    modern days, we paste up paper, are known to have been sometimes
    made of silk, ornamented with birds and flowers in needlework.
    Tables and chairs were curiously carved in different woods; were
    sometimes decorated with gold or silver; sometimes even made of
    those precious metals. Knives and spoons were used at table;
    golden ornaments were worn - with silk and cloth, and golden
    tissues and embroideries; dishes were made of gold and silver,
    brass and bone. There were varieties of drinking-horns, bedsteads,
    musical instruments. A harp was passed round, at a feast, like the
    drinking-bowl, from guest to guest; and each one usually sang or
    played when his turn came. The weapons of the Saxons were stoutly
    made, and among them was a terrible iron hammer that gave deadly
    blows, and was long remembered. The Saxons themselves were a
    handsome people. The men were proud of their long fair hair,
    parted on the forehead; their ample beards, their fresh
    complexions, and clear eyes. The beauty of the Saxon women filled
    all England with a new delight and grace.

    I have more to tell of the Saxons yet, but I stop to say this now,
    because under the GREAT ALFRED, all the best points of the English-
    Saxon character were first encouraged, and in him first shown. It
    has been the greatest character among the nations of the earth.
    Wherever the descendants of the Saxon race have gone, have sailed,
    or otherwise made their way, even to the remotest regions of the
    world, they have been patient, persevering, never to be broken in
    spirit, never to be turned aside from enterprises on which they
    have resolved. In Europe, Asia, Africa, America, the whole world
    over; in the desert, in the forest, on the sea; scorched by a
    burning sun, or frozen by ice that never melts; the Saxon blood
    remains unchanged. Wheresoever that race goes, there, law, and
    industry, and safety for life and property, and all the great
    results of steady perseverance, are certain to arise.

    I pause to think with admiration, of the noble king who, in his
    single person, possessed all the Saxon virtues. Whom misfortune
    could not subdue, whom prosperity could not spoil, whose
    perseverance nothing could shake. Who was hopeful in defeat, and
    generous in success. Who loved justice, freedom, truth, and
    knowledge. Who, in his care to instruct his people, probably did
    more to preserve the beautiful old Saxon language, than I can
    imagine. Without whom, the English tongue in which I tell this
    story might have wanted half its meaning. As it is said that his
    spirit still inspires some of our best English laws, so, let you
    and I pray that it may animate our English hearts, at least to this
    - to resolve, when we see any of our fellow-creatures left in
    ignorance, that we will do our best, while life is in us, to have
    them taught; and to tell those rulers whose duty it is to teach
    them, and who neglect their duty, that they have profited very
    little by all the years that have rolled away since the year nine
    hundred and one, and that they are far behind the bright example of
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