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    Ch. 23 - Edward the Fourth

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    Chapter 23
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    KING EDWARD THE FOURTH was not quite twenty-one years of age when
    he took that unquiet seat upon the throne of England. The
    Lancaster party, the Red Roses, were then assembling in great
    numbers near York, and it was necessary to give them battle
    instantly. But, the stout Earl of Warwick leading for the young
    King, and the young King himself closely following him, and the
    English people crowding round the Royal standard, the White and the
    Red Roses met, on a wild March day when the snow was falling
    heavily, at Towton; and there such a furious battle raged between
    them, that the total loss amounted to forty thousand men - all
    Englishmen, fighting, upon English ground, against one another.
    The young King gained the day, took down the heads of his father
    and brother from the walls of York, and put up the heads of some of
    the most famous noblemen engaged in the battle on the other side.
    Then, he went to London and was crowned with great splendour.

    A new Parliament met. No fewer than one hundred and fifty of the
    principal noblemen and gentlemen on the Lancaster side were
    declared traitors, and the King - who had very little humanity,
    though he was handsome in person and agreeable in manners -
    resolved to do all he could, to pluck up the Red Rose root and
    branch.

    Queen Margaret, however, was still active for her young son. She
    obtained help from Scotland and from Normandy, and took several
    important English castles. But, Warwick soon retook them; the
    Queen lost all her treasure on board ship in a great storm; and
    both she and her son suffered great misfortunes. Once, in the
    winter weather, as they were riding through a forest, they were
    attacked and plundered by a party of robbers; and, when they had
    escaped from these men and were passing alone and on foot through a
    thick dark part of the wood, they came, all at once, upon another
    robber. So the Queen, with a stout heart, took the little Prince
    by the hand, and going straight up to that robber, said to him, 'My
    friend, this is the young son of your lawful King! I confide him
    to your care.' The robber was surprised, but took the boy in his
    arms, and faithfully restored him and his mother to their friends.
    In the end, the Queen's soldiers being beaten and dispersed, she
    went abroad again, and kept quiet for the present.

    Now, all this time, the deposed King Henry was concealed by a Welsh
    knight, who kept him close in his castle. But, next year, the
    Lancaster party recovering their spirits, raised a large body of
    men, and called him out of his retirement, to put him at their
    head. They were joined by some powerful noblemen who had sworn
    fidelity to the new King, but who were ready, as usual, to break
    their oaths, whenever they thought there was anything to be got by
    it. One of the worst things in the history of the war of the Red
    and White Roses, is the ease with which these noblemen, who should
    have set an example of honour to the people, left either side as
    they took slight offence, or were disappointed in their greedy
    expectations, and joined the other. Well! Warwick's brother soon
    beat the Lancastrians, and the false noblemen, being taken, were
    beheaded without a moment's loss of time. The deposed King had a
    narrow escape; three of his servants were taken, and one of them
    bore his cap of estate, which was set with pearls and embroidered
    with two golden crowns. However, the head to which the cap
    belonged, got safely into Lancashire, and lay pretty quietly there
    (the people in the secret being very true) for more than a year.
    At length, an old monk gave such intelligence as led to Henry's
    being taken while he was sitting at dinner in a place called
    Waddington Hall. He was immediately sent to London, and met at
    Islington by the Earl of Warwick, by whose directions he was put
    upon a horse, with his legs tied under it, and paraded three times
    round the pillory. Then, he was carried off to the Tower, where
    they treated him well enough.

    The White Rose being so triumphant, the young King abandoned
    himself entirely to pleasure, and led a jovial life. But, thorns
    were springing up under his bed of roses, as he soon found out.
    For, having been privately married to ELIZABETH WOODVILLE, a young
    widow lady, very beautiful and very captivating; and at last
    resolving to make his secret known, and to declare her his Queen;
    he gave some offence to the Earl of Warwick, who was usually called
    the King-Maker, because of his power and influence, and because of
    his having lent such great help to placing Edward on the throne.
    This offence was not lessened by the jealousy with which the Nevil
    family (the Earl of Warwick's) regarded the promotion of the
    Woodville family. For, the young Queen was so bent on providing
    for her relations, that she made her father an earl and a great
    officer of state; married her five sisters to young noblemen of the
    highest rank; and provided for her younger brother, a young man of
    twenty, by marrying him to an immensely rich old duchess of eighty.
    The Earl of Warwick took all this pretty graciously for a man of
    his proud temper, until the question arose to whom the King's
    sister, MARGARET, should be married. The Earl of Warwick said, 'To
    one of the French King's sons,' and was allowed to go over to the
    French King to make friendly proposals for that purpose, and to
    hold all manner of friendly interviews with him. But, while he was
    so engaged, the Woodville party married the young lady to the Duke
    of Burgundy! Upon this he came back in great rage and scorn, and
    shut himself up discontented, in his Castle of Middleham.

    A reconciliation, though not a very sincere one, was patched up
    between the Earl of Warwick and the King, and lasted until the Earl
    married his daughter, against the King's wishes, to the Duke of
    Clarence. While the marriage was being celebrated at Calais, the
    people in the north of England, where the influence of the Nevil
    family was strongest, broke out into rebellion; their complaint
    was, that England was oppressed and plundered by the Woodville
    family, whom they demanded to have removed from power. As they
    were joined by great numbers of people, and as they openly declared
    that they were supported by the Earl of Warwick, the King did not
    know what to do. At last, as he wrote to the earl beseeching his
    aid, he and his new son-in-law came over to England, and began to
    arrange the business by shutting the King up in Middleham Castle in
    the safe keeping of the Archbishop of York; so England was not only
    in the strange position of having two kings at once, but they were
    both prisoners at the same time.

    Even as yet, however, the King-Maker was so far true to the King,
    that he dispersed a new rising of the Lancastrians, took their
    leader prisoner, and brought him to the King, who ordered him to be
    immediately executed. He presently allowed the King to return to
    London, and there innumerable pledges of forgiveness and friendship
    were exchanged between them, and between the Nevils and the
    Woodvilles; the King's eldest daughter was promised in marriage to
    the heir of the Nevil family; and more friendly oaths were sworn,
    and more friendly promises made, than this book would hold.

    They lasted about three months. At the end of that time, the
    Archbishop of York made a feast for the King, the Earl of Warwick,
    and the Duke of Clarence, at his house, the Moor, in Hertfordshire.
    The King was washing his hands before supper, when some one
    whispered him that a body of a hundred men were lying in ambush
    outside the house. Whether this were true or untrue, the King took
    fright, mounted his horse, and rode through the dark night to
    Windsor Castle. Another reconciliation was patched up between him
    and the King-Maker, but it was a short one, and it was the last. A
    new rising took place in Lincolnshire, and the King marched to
    repress it. Having done so, he proclaimed that both the Earl of
    Warwick and the Duke of Clarence were traitors, who had secretly
    assisted it, and who had been prepared publicly to join it on the
    following day. In these dangerous circumstances they both took
    ship and sailed away to the French court.

    And here a meeting took place between the Earl of Warwick and his
    old enemy, the Dowager Queen Margaret, through whom his father had
    had his head struck off, and to whom he had been a bitter foe.
    But, now, when he said that he had done with the ungrateful and
    perfidious Edward of York, and that henceforth he devoted himself
    to the restoration of the House of Lancaster, either in the person
    of her husband or of her little son, she embraced him as if he had
    ever been her dearest friend. She did more than that; she married
    her son to his second daughter, the Lady Anne. However agreeable
    this marriage was to the new friends, it was very disagreeable to
    the Duke of Clarence, who perceived that his father-in-law, the
    King-Maker, would never make HIM King, now. So, being but a weak-
    minded young traitor, possessed of very little worth or sense, he
    readily listened to an artful court lady sent over for the purpose,
    and promised to turn traitor once more, and go over to his brother,
    King Edward, when a fitting opportunity should come.

    The Earl of Warwick, knowing nothing of this, soon redeemed his
    promise to the Dowager Queen Margaret, by invading England and
    landing at Plymouth, where he instantly proclaimed King Henry, and
    summoned all Englishmen between the ages of sixteen and sixty, to
    join his banner. Then, with his army increasing as he marched
    along, he went northward, and came so near King Edward, who was in
    that part of the country, that Edward had to ride hard for it to
    the coast of Norfolk, and thence to get away in such ships as he
    could find, to Holland. Thereupon, the triumphant King-Maker and
    his false son-in-law, the Duke of Clarence, went to London, took
    the old King out of the Tower, and walked him in a great procession
    to Saint Paul's Cathedral with the crown upon his head. This did
    not improve the temper of the Duke of Clarence, who saw himself
    farther off from being King than ever; but he kept his secret, and
    said nothing. The Nevil family were restored to all their honours
    and glories, and the Woodvilles and the rest were disgraced. The
    King-Maker, less sanguinary than the King, shed no blood except
    that of the Earl of Worcester, who had been so cruel to the people
    as to have gained the title of the Butcher. Him they caught hidden
    in a tree, and him they tried and executed. No other death stained
    the King-Maker's triumph.

    To dispute this triumph, back came King Edward again, next year,
    landing at Ravenspur, coming on to York, causing all his men to cry
    'Long live King Henry!' and swearing on the altar, without a blush,
    that he came to lay no claim to the crown. Now was the time for
    the Duke of Clarence, who ordered his men to assume the White Rose,
    and declare for his brother. The Marquis of Montague, though the
    Earl of Warwick's brother, also declining to fight against King
    Edward, he went on successfully to London, where the Archbishop of
    York let him into the City, and where the people made great
    demonstrations in his favour. For this they had four reasons.
    Firstly, there were great numbers of the King's adherents hiding in
    the City and ready to break out; secondly, the King owed them a
    great deal of money, which they could never hope to get if he were
    unsuccessful; thirdly, there was a young prince to inherit the
    crown; and fourthly, the King was gay and handsome, and more
    popular than a better man might have been with the City ladies.
    After a stay of only two days with these worthy supporters, the
    King marched out to Barnet Common, to give the Earl of Warwick
    battle. And now it was to be seen, for the last time, whether the
    King or the King-Maker was to carry the day.

    While the battle was yet pending, the fainthearted Duke of Clarence
    began to repent, and sent over secret messages to his father-in-
    law, offering his services in mediation with the King. But, the
    Earl of Warwick disdainfully rejected them, and replied that
    Clarence was false and perjured, and that he would settle the
    quarrel by the sword. The battle began at four o'clock in the
    morning and lasted until ten, and during the greater part of the
    time it was fought in a thick mist - absurdly supposed to be raised
    by a magician. The loss of life was very great, for the hatred was
    strong on both sides. The King-Maker was defeated, and the King
    triumphed. Both the Earl of Warwick and his brother were slain,
    and their bodies lay in St. Paul's, for some days, as a spectacle
    to the people.

    Margaret's spirit was not broken even by this great blow. Within
    five days she was in arms again, and raised her standard in Bath,
    whence she set off with her army, to try and join Lord Pembroke,
    who had a force in Wales. But, the King, coming up with her
    outside the town of Tewkesbury, and ordering his brother, the DUKE
    OF GLOUCESTER, who was a brave soldier, to attack her men, she
    sustained an entire defeat, and was taken prisoner, together with
    her son, now only eighteen years of age. The conduct of the King
    to this poor youth was worthy of his cruel character. He ordered
    him to be led into his tent. 'And what,' said he, 'brought YOU to
    England?' 'I came to England,' replied the prisoner, with a spirit
    which a man of spirit might have admired in a captive, 'to recover
    my father's kingdom, which descended to him as his right, and from
    him descends to me, as mine.' The King, drawing off his iron
    gauntlet, struck him with it in the face; and the Duke of Clarence
    and some other lords, who were there, drew their noble swords, and
    killed him.

    His mother survived him, a prisoner, for five years; after her
    ransom by the King of France, she survived for six years more.
    Within three weeks of this murder, Henry died one of those
    convenient sudden deaths which were so common in the Tower; in
    plainer words, he was murdered by the King's order.

    Having no particular excitement on his hands after this great
    defeat of the Lancaster party, and being perhaps desirous to get
    rid of some of his fat (for he was now getting too corpulent to be
    handsome), the King thought of making war on France. As he wanted
    more money for this purpose than the Parliament could give him,
    though they were usually ready enough for war, he invented a new
    way of raising it, by sending for the principal citizens of London,
    and telling them, with a grave face, that he was very much in want
    of cash, and would take it very kind in them if they would lend him
    some. It being impossible for them safely to refuse, they
    complied, and the moneys thus forced from them were called - no
    doubt to the great amusement of the King and the Court - as if they
    were free gifts, 'Benevolences.' What with grants from Parliament,
    and what with Benevolences, the King raised an army and passed over
    to Calais. As nobody wanted war, however, the French King made
    proposals of peace, which were accepted, and a truce was concluded
    for seven long years. The proceedings between the Kings of France
    and England on this occasion, were very friendly, very splendid,
    and very distrustful. They finished with a meeting between the two
    Kings, on a temporary bridge over the river Somme, where they
    embraced through two holes in a strong wooden grating like a lion's
    cage, and made several bows and fine speeches to one another.

    It was time, now, that the Duke of Clarence should be punished for
    his treacheries; and Fate had his punishment in store. He was,
    probably, not trusted by the King - for who could trust him who
    knew him! - and he had certainly a powerful opponent in his brother
    Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who, being avaricious and ambitious,
    wanted to marry that widowed daughter of the Earl of Warwick's who
    had been espoused to the deceased young Prince, at Calais.
    Clarence, who wanted all the family wealth for himself, secreted
    this lady, whom Richard found disguised as a servant in the City of
    London, and whom he married; arbitrators appointed by the King,
    then divided the property between the brothers. This led to ill-
    will and mistrust between them. Clarence's wife dying, and he
    wishing to make another marriage, which was obnoxious to the King,
    his ruin was hurried by that means, too. At first, the Court
    struck at his retainers and dependents, and accused some of them of
    magic and witchcraft, and similar nonsense. Successful against
    this small game, it then mounted to the Duke himself, who was
    impeached by his brother the King, in person, on a variety of such
    charges. He was found guilty, and sentenced to be publicly
    executed. He never was publicly executed, but he met his death
    somehow, in the Tower, and, no doubt, through some agency of the
    King or his brother Gloucester, or both. It was supposed at the
    time that he was told to choose the manner of his death, and that
    he chose to be drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine. I hope the story
    may be true, for it would have been a becoming death for such a
    miserable creature.

    The King survived him some five years. He died in the forty-second
    year of his life, and the twenty-third of his reign. He had a very
    good capacity and some good points, but he was selfish, careless,
    sensual, and cruel. He was a favourite with the people for his
    showy manners; and the people were a good example to him in the
    constancy of their attachment. He was penitent on his death-bed
    for his 'benevolences,' and other extortions, and ordered
    restitution to be made to the people who had suffered from them.
    He also called about his bed the enriched members of the Woodville
    family, and the proud lords whose honours were of older date, and
    endeavoured to reconcile them, for the sake of the peaceful
    succession of his son and the tranquillity of England.
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    Chapter 23
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