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    Ch. 25 - Richard the Third

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    Chapter 25
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    KING RICHARD THE THIRD was up betimes in the morning, and went to
    Westminster Hall. In the Hall was a marble seat, upon which he sat
    himself down between two great noblemen, and told the people that
    he began the new reign in that place, because the first duty of a
    sovereign was to administer the laws equally to all, and to
    maintain justice. He then mounted his horse and rode back to the
    City, where he was received by the clergy and the crowd as if he
    really had a right to the throne, and really were a just man. The
    clergy and the crowd must have been rather ashamed of themselves in
    secret, I think, for being such poor-spirited knaves.

    The new King and his Queen were soon crowned with a great deal of
    show and noise, which the people liked very much; and then the King
    set forth on a royal progress through his dominions. He was
    crowned a second time at York, in order that the people might have
    show and noise enough; and wherever he went was received with
    shouts of rejoicing - from a good many people of strong lungs, who
    were paid to strain their throats in crying, 'God save King
    Richard!' The plan was so successful that I am told it has been
    imitated since, by other usurpers, in other progresses through
    other dominions.

    While he was on this journey, King Richard stayed a week at
    Warwick. And from Warwick he sent instructions home for one of the
    wickedest murders that ever was done - the murder of the two young
    princes, his nephews, who were shut up in the Tower of London.

    Sir Robert Brackenbury was at that time Governor of the Tower. To
    him, by the hands of a messenger named JOHN GREEN, did King Richard
    send a letter, ordering him by some means to put the two young
    princes to death. But Sir Robert - I hope because he had children
    of his own, and loved them - sent John Green back again, riding and
    spurring along the dusty roads, with the answer that he could not
    do so horrible a piece of work. The King, having frowningly
    considered a little, called to him SIR JAMES TYRREL, his master of
    the horse, and to him gave authority to take command of the Tower,
    whenever he would, for twenty-four hours, and to keep all the keys
    of the Tower during that space of time. Tyrrel, well knowing what
    was wanted, looked about him for two hardened ruffians, and chose
    JOHN DIGHTON, one of his own grooms, and MILES FOREST, who was a
    murderer by trade. Having secured these two assistants, he went,
    upon a day in August, to the Tower, showed his authority from the
    King, took the command for four-and-twenty hours, and obtained
    possession of the keys. And when the black night came he went
    creeping, creeping, like a guilty villain as he was, up the dark,
    stone winding stairs, and along the dark stone passages, until he
    came to the door of the room where the two young princes, having
    said their prayers, lay fast asleep, clasped in each other's arms.
    And while he watched and listened at the door, he sent in those
    evil demons, John Dighton and Miles Forest, who smothered the two
    princes with the bed and pillows, and carried their bodies down the
    stairs, and buried them under a great heap of stones at the
    staircase foot. And when the day came, he gave up the command of
    the Tower, and restored the keys, and hurried away without once
    looking behind him; and Sir Robert Brackenbury went with fear and
    sadness to the princes' room, and found the princes gone for ever.

    You know, through all this history, how true it is that traitors
    are never true, and you will not be surprised to learn that the
    Duke of Buckingham soon turned against King Richard, and joined a
    great conspiracy that was formed to dethrone him, and to place the
    crown upon its rightful owner's head. Richard had meant to keep
    the murder secret; but when he heard through his spies that this
    conspiracy existed, and that many lords and gentlemen drank in
    secret to the healths of the two young princes in the Tower, he
    made it known that they were dead. The conspirators, though
    thwarted for a moment, soon resolved to set up for the crown
    against the murderous Richard, HENRY Earl of Richmond, grandson of
    Catherine: that widow of Henry the Fifth who married Owen Tudor.
    And as Henry was of the house of Lancaster, they proposed that he
    should marry the Princess Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of the
    late King, now the heiress of the house of York, and thus by
    uniting the rival families put an end to the fatal wars of the Red
    and White Roses. All being settled, a time was appointed for Henry
    to come over from Brittany, and for a great rising against Richard
    to take place in several parts of England at the same hour. On a
    certain day, therefore, in October, the revolt took place; but
    unsuccessfully. Richard was prepared, Henry was driven back at sea
    by a storm, his followers in England were dispersed, and the Duke
    of Buckingham was taken, and at once beheaded in the market-place
    at Salisbury.

    The time of his success was a good time, Richard thought, for
    summoning a Parliament and getting some money. So, a Parliament
    was called, and it flattered and fawned upon him as much as he
    could possibly desire, and declared him to be the rightful King of
    England, and his only son Edward, then eleven years of age, the
    next heir to the throne.

    Richard knew full well that, let the Parliament say what it would,
    the Princess Elizabeth was remembered by people as the heiress of
    the house of York; and having accurate information besides, of its
    being designed by the conspirators to marry her to Henry of
    Richmond, he felt that it would much strengthen him and weaken
    them, to be beforehand with them, and marry her to his son. With
    this view he went to the Sanctuary at Westminster, where the late
    King's widow and her daughter still were, and besought them to come
    to Court: where (he swore by anything and everything) they should
    be safely and honourably entertained. They came, accordingly, but
    had scarcely been at Court a month when his son died suddenly - or
    was poisoned - and his plan was crushed to pieces.

    In this extremity, King Richard, always active, thought, 'I must
    make another plan.' And he made the plan of marrying the Princess
    Elizabeth himself, although she was his niece. There was one
    difficulty in the way: his wife, the Queen Anne, was alive. But,
    he knew (remembering his nephews) how to remove that obstacle, and
    he made love to the Princess Elizabeth, telling her he felt
    perfectly confident that the Queen would die in February. The
    Princess was not a very scrupulous young lady, for, instead of
    rejecting the murderer of her brothers with scorn and hatred, she
    openly declared she loved him dearly; and, when February came and
    the Queen did not die, she expressed her impatient opinion that she
    was too long about it. However, King Richard was not so far out in
    his prediction, but, that she died in March - he took good care of
    that - and then this precious pair hoped to be married. But they
    were disappointed, for the idea of such a marriage was so unpopular
    in the country, that the King's chief counsellors, RATCLIFFE and
    CATESBY, would by no means undertake to propose it, and the King
    was even obliged to declare in public that he had never thought of
    such a thing.

    He was, by this time, dreaded and hated by all classes of his
    subjects. His nobles deserted every day to Henry's side; he dared
    not call another Parliament, lest his crimes should be denounced
    there; and for want of money, he was obliged to get Benevolences
    from the citizens, which exasperated them all against him. It was
    said too, that, being stricken by his conscience, he dreamed
    frightful dreams, and started up in the night-time, wild with
    terror and remorse. Active to the last, through all this, he
    issued vigorous proclamations against Henry of Richmond and all his
    followers, when he heard that they were coming against him with a
    Fleet from France; and took the field as fierce and savage as a
    wild boar - the animal represented on his shield.

    Henry of Richmond landed with six thousand men at Milford Haven,
    and came on against King Richard, then encamped at Leicester with
    an army twice as great, through North Wales. On Bosworth Field the
    two armies met; and Richard, looking along Henry's ranks, and
    seeing them crowded with the English nobles who had abandoned him,
    turned pale when he beheld the powerful Lord Stanley and his son
    (whom he had tried hard to retain) among them. But, he was as
    brave as he was wicked, and plunged into the thickest of the fight.
    He was riding hither and thither, laying about him in all
    directions, when he observed the Earl of Northumberland - one of
    his few great allies - to stand inactive, and the main body of his
    troops to hesitate. At the same moment, his desperate glance
    caught Henry of Richmond among a little group of his knights.
    Riding hard at him, and crying 'Treason!' he killed his standard-
    bearer, fiercely unhorsed another gentleman, and aimed a powerful
    stroke at Henry himself, to cut him down. But, Sir William Stanley
    parried it as it fell, and before Richard could raise his arm
    again, he was borne down in a press of numbers, unhorsed, and
    killed. Lord Stanley picked up the crown, all bruised and
    trampled, and stained with blood, and put it upon Richmond's head,
    amid loud and rejoicing cries of 'Long live King Henry!'

    That night, a horse was led up to the church of the Grey Friars at
    Leicester; across whose back was tied, like some worthless sack, a
    naked body brought there for burial. It was the body of the last
    of the Plantagenet line, King Richard the Third, usurper and
    murderer, slain at the battle of Bosworth Field in the thirty-
    second year of his age, after a reign of two years.
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