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    Ch. 26 - Henry the Seventh

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    Chapter 26
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    KING HENRY THE SEVENTH did not turn out to be as fine a fellow as
    the nobility and people hoped, in the first joy of their
    deliverance from Richard the Third. He was very cold, crafty, and
    calculating, and would do almost anything for money. He possessed
    considerable ability, but his chief merit appears to have been that
    he was not cruel when there was nothing to be got by it.

    The new King had promised the nobles who had espoused his cause
    that he would marry the Princess Elizabeth. The first thing he
    did, was, to direct her to be removed from the castle of Sheriff
    Hutton in Yorkshire, where Richard had placed her, and restored to
    the care of her mother in London. The young Earl of Warwick,
    Edward Plantagenet, son and heir of the late Duke of Clarence, had
    been kept a prisoner in the same old Yorkshire Castle with her.
    This boy, who was now fifteen, the new King placed in the Tower for
    safety. Then he came to London in great state, and gratified the
    people with a fine procession; on which kind of show he often very
    much relied for keeping them in good humour. The sports and feasts
    which took place were followed by a terrible fever, called the
    Sweating Sickness; of which great numbers of people died. Lord
    Mayors and Aldermen are thought to have suffered most from it;
    whether, because they were in the habit of over-eating themselves,
    or because they were very jealous of preserving filth and nuisances
    in the City (as they have been since), I don't know.

    The King's coronation was postponed on account of the general ill-
    health, and he afterwards deferred his marriage, as if he were not
    very anxious that it should take place: and, even after that,
    deferred the Queen's coronation so long that he gave offence to the
    York party. However, he set these things right in the end, by
    hanging some men and seizing on the rich possessions of others; by
    granting more popular pardons to the followers of the late King
    than could, at first, be got from him; and, by employing about his
    Court, some very scrupulous persons who had been employed in the
    previous reign.

    As this reign was principally remarkable for two very curious
    impostures which have become famous in history, we will make those
    two stories its principal feature.

    There was a priest at Oxford of the name of Simons, who had for a
    pupil a handsome boy named Lambert Simnel, the son of a baker.
    Partly to gratify his own ambitious ends, and partly to carry out
    the designs of a secret party formed against the King, this priest
    declared that his pupil, the boy, was no other than the young Earl
    of Warwick; who (as everybody might have known) was safely locked
    up in the Tower of London. The priest and the boy went over to
    Ireland; and, at Dublin, enlisted in their cause all ranks of the
    people: who seem to have been generous enough, but exceedingly
    irrational. The Earl of Kildare, the governor of Ireland, declared
    that he believed the boy to be what the priest represented; and the
    boy, who had been well tutored by the priest, told them such things
    of his childhood, and gave them so many descriptions of the Royal
    Family, that they were perpetually shouting and hurrahing, and
    drinking his health, and making all kinds of noisy and thirsty
    demonstrations, to express their belief in him. Nor was this
    feeling confined to Ireland alone, for the Earl of Lincoln - whom
    the late usurper had named as his successor - went over to the
    young Pretender; and, after holding a secret correspondence with
    the Dowager Duchess of Burgundy - the sister of Edward the Fourth,
    who detested the present King and all his race - sailed to Dublin
    with two thousand German soldiers of her providing. In this
    promising state of the boy's fortunes, he was crowned there, with a
    crown taken off the head of a statue of the Virgin Mary; and was
    then, according to the Irish custom of those days, carried home on
    the shoulders of a big chieftain possessing a great deal more
    strength than sense. Father Simons, you may be sure, was mighty
    busy at the coronation.

    Ten days afterwards, the Germans, and the Irish, and the priest,
    and the boy, and the Earl of Lincoln, all landed in Lancashire to
    invade England. The King, who had good intelligence of their
    movements, set up his standard at Nottingham, where vast numbers
    resorted to him every day; while the Earl of Lincoln could gain but
    very few. With his small force he tried to make for the town of
    Newark; but the King's army getting between him and that place, he
    had no choice but to risk a battle at Stoke. It soon ended in the
    complete destruction of the Pretender's forces, one half of whom
    were killed; among them, the Earl himself. The priest and the
    baker's boy were taken prisoners. The priest, after confessing the
    trick, was shut up in prison, where he afterwards died - suddenly
    perhaps. The boy was taken into the King's kitchen and made a
    turnspit. He was afterwards raised to the station of one of the
    King's falconers; and so ended this strange imposition.

    There seems reason to suspect that the Dowager Queen - always a
    restless and busy woman - had had some share in tutoring the
    baker's son. The King was very angry with her, whether or no. He
    seized upon her property, and shut her up in a convent at
    Bermondsey.

    One might suppose that the end of this story would have put the
    Irish people on their guard; but they were quite ready to receive a
    second impostor, as they had received the first, and that same
    troublesome Duchess of Burgundy soon gave them the opportunity.
    All of a sudden there appeared at Cork, in a vessel arriving from
    Portugal, a young man of excellent abilities, of very handsome
    appearance and most winning manners, who declared himself to be
    Richard, Duke of York, the second son of King Edward the Fourth.
    'O,' said some, even of those ready Irish believers, 'but surely
    that young Prince was murdered by his uncle in the Tower!' - 'It IS
    supposed so,' said the engaging young man; 'and my brother WAS
    killed in that gloomy prison; but I escaped - it don't matter how,
    at present - and have been wandering about the world for seven long
    years.' This explanation being quite satisfactory to numbers of
    the Irish people, they began again to shout and to hurrah, and to
    drink his health, and to make the noisy and thirsty demonstrations
    all over again. And the big chieftain in Dublin began to look out
    for another coronation, and another young King to be carried home
    on his back.

    Now, King Henry being then on bad terms with France, the French
    King, Charles the Eighth, saw that, by pretending to believe in the
    handsome young man, he could trouble his enemy sorely. So, he
    invited him over to the French Court, and appointed him a body-
    guard, and treated him in all respects as if he really were the
    Duke of York. Peace, however, being soon concluded between the two
    Kings, the pretended Duke was turned adrift, and wandered for
    protection to the Duchess of Burgundy. She, after feigning to
    inquire into the reality of his claims, declared him to be the very
    picture of her dear departed brother; gave him a body-guard at her
    Court, of thirty halberdiers; and called him by the sounding name
    of the White Rose of England.

    The leading members of the White Rose party in England sent over an
    agent, named Sir Robert Clifford, to ascertain whether the White
    Rose's claims were good: the King also sent over his agents to
    inquire into the Rose's history. The White Roses declared the
    young man to be really the Duke of York; the King declared him to
    be PERKIN WARBECK, the son of a merchant of the city of Tournay,
    who had acquired his knowledge of England, its language and
    manners, from the English merchants who traded in Flanders; it was
    also stated by the Royal agents that he had been in the service of
    Lady Brompton, the wife of an exiled English nobleman, and that the
    Duchess of Burgundy had caused him to be trained and taught,
    expressly for this deception. The King then required the Archduke
    Philip - who was the sovereign of Burgundy - to banish this new
    Pretender, or to deliver him up; but, as the Archduke replied that
    he could not control the Duchess in her own land, the King, in
    revenge, took the market of English cloth away from Antwerp, and
    prevented all commercial intercourse between the two countries.

    He also, by arts and bribes, prevailed on Sir Robert Clifford to
    betray his employers; and he denouncing several famous English
    noblemen as being secretly the friends of Perkin Warbeck, the King
    had three of the foremost executed at once. Whether he pardoned
    the remainder because they were poor, I do not know; but it is only
    too probable that he refused to pardon one famous nobleman against
    whom the same Clifford soon afterwards informed separately, because
    he was rich. This was no other than Sir William Stanley, who had
    saved the King's life at the battle of Bosworth Field. It is very
    doubtful whether his treason amounted to much more than his having
    said, that if he were sure the young man was the Duke of York, he
    would not take arms against him. Whatever he had done he admitted,
    like an honourable spirit; and he lost his head for it, and the
    covetous King gained all his wealth.

    Perkin Warbeck kept quiet for three years; but, as the Flemings
    began to complain heavily of the loss of their trade by the
    stoppage of the Antwerp market on his account, and as it was not
    unlikely that they might even go so far as to take his life, or
    give him up, he found it necessary to do something. Accordingly he
    made a desperate sally, and landed, with only a few hundred men, on
    the coast of Deal. But he was soon glad to get back to the place
    from whence he came; for the country people rose against his
    followers, killed a great many, and took a hundred and fifty
    prisoners: who were all driven to London, tied together with
    ropes, like a team of cattle. Every one of them was hanged on some
    part or other of the sea-shore; in order, that if any more men
    should come over with Perkin Warbeck, they might see the bodies as
    a warning before they landed.

    Then the wary King, by making a treaty of commerce with the
    Flemings, drove Perkin Warbeck out of that country; and, by
    completely gaining over the Irish to his side, deprived him of that
    asylum too. He wandered away to Scotland, and told his story at
    that Court. King James the Fourth of Scotland, who was no friend
    to King Henry, and had no reason to be (for King Henry had bribed
    his Scotch lords to betray him more than once; but had never
    succeeded in his plots), gave him a great reception, called him his
    cousin, and gave him in marriage the Lady Catherine Gordon, a
    beautiful and charming creature related to the royal house of
    Stuart.

    Alarmed by this successful reappearance of the Pretender, the King
    still undermined, and bought, and bribed, and kept his doings and
    Perkin Warbeck's story in the dark, when he might, one would
    imagine, have rendered the matter clear to all England. But, for
    all this bribing of the Scotch lords at the Scotch King's Court, he
    could not procure the Pretender to be delivered up to him. James,
    though not very particular in many respects, would not betray him;
    and the ever-busy Duchess of Burgundy so provided him with arms,
    and good soldiers, and with money besides, that he had soon a
    little army of fifteen hundred men of various nations. With these,
    and aided by the Scottish King in person, he crossed the border
    into England, and made a proclamation to the people, in which he
    called the King 'Henry Tudor;' offered large rewards to any who
    should take or distress him; and announced himself as King Richard
    the Fourth come to receive the homage of his faithful subjects.
    His faithful subjects, however, cared nothing for him, and hated
    his faithful troops: who, being of different nations, quarrelled
    also among themselves. Worse than this, if worse were possible,
    they began to plunder the country; upon which the White Rose said,
    that he would rather lose his rights, than gain them through the
    miseries of the English people. The Scottish King made a jest of
    his scruples; but they and their whole force went back again
    without fighting a battle.

    The worst consequence of this attempt was, that a rising took place
    among the people of Cornwall, who considered themselves too heavily
    taxed to meet the charges of the expected war. Stimulated by
    Flammock, a lawyer, and Joseph, a blacksmith, and joined by Lord
    Audley and some other country gentlemen, they marched on all the
    way to Deptford Bridge, where they fought a battle with the King's
    army. They were defeated - though the Cornish men fought with
    great bravery - and the lord was beheaded, and the lawyer and the
    blacksmith were hanged, drawn, and quartered. The rest were
    pardoned. The King, who believed every man to be as avaricious as
    himself, and thought that money could settle anything, allowed them
    to make bargains for their liberty with the soldiers who had taken
    them.

    Perkin Warbeck, doomed to wander up and down, and never to find
    rest anywhere - a sad fate: almost a sufficient punishment for an
    imposture, which he seems in time to have half believed himself -
    lost his Scottish refuge through a truce being made between the two
    Kings; and found himself, once more, without a country before him
    in which he could lay his head. But James (always honourable and
    true to him, alike when he melted down his plate, and even the
    great gold chain he had been used to wear, to pay soldiers in his
    cause; and now, when that cause was lost and hopeless) did not
    conclude the treaty, until he had safely departed out of the
    Scottish dominions. He, and his beautiful wife, who was faithful
    to him under all reverses, and left her state and home to follow
    his poor fortunes, were put aboard ship with everything necessary
    for their comfort and protection, and sailed for Ireland.

    But, the Irish people had had enough of counterfeit Earls of
    Warwick and Dukes of York, for one while; and would give the White
    Rose no aid. So, the White Rose - encircled by thorns indeed -
    resolved to go with his beautiful wife to Cornwall as a forlorn
    resource, and see what might be made of the Cornish men, who had
    risen so valiantly a little while before, and who had fought so
    bravely at Deptford Bridge.

    To Whitsand Bay, in Cornwall, accordingly, came Perkin Warbeck and
    his wife; and the lovely lady he shut up for safety in the Castle
    of St. Michael's Mount, and then marched into Devonshire at the
    head of three thousand Cornishmen. These were increased to six
    thousand by the time of his arrival in Exeter; but, there the
    people made a stout resistance, and he went on to Taunton, where he
    came in sight of the King's army. The stout Cornish men, although
    they were few in number, and badly armed, were so bold, that they
    never thought of retreating; but bravely looked forward to a battle
    on the morrow. Unhappily for them, the man who was possessed of so
    many engaging qualities, and who attracted so many people to his
    side when he had nothing else with which to tempt them, was not as
    brave as they. In the night, when the two armies lay opposite to
    each other, he mounted a swift horse and fled. When morning
    dawned, the poor confiding Cornish men, discovering that they had
    no leader, surrendered to the King's power. Some of them were
    hanged, and the rest were pardoned and went miserably home.

    Before the King pursued Perkin Warbeck to the sanctuary of Beaulieu
    in the New Forest, where it was soon known that he had taken
    refuge, he sent a body of horsemen to St. Michael's Mount, to seize
    his wife. She was soon taken and brought as a captive before the
    King. But she was so beautiful, and so good, and so devoted to the
    man in whom she believed, that the King regarded her with
    compassion, treated her with great respect, and placed her at
    Court, near the Queen's person. And many years after Perkin
    Warbeck was no more, and when his strange story had become like a
    nursery tale, SHE was called the White Rose, by the people, in
    remembrance of her beauty.

    The sanctuary at Beaulieu was soon surrounded by the King's men;
    and the King, pursuing his usual dark, artful ways, sent pretended
    friends to Perkin Warbeck to persuade him to come out and surrender
    himself. This he soon did; the King having taken a good look at
    the man of whom he had heard so much - from behind a screen -
    directed him to be well mounted, and to ride behind him at a little
    distance, guarded, but not bound in any way. So they entered
    London with the King's favourite show - a procession; and some of
    the people hooted as the Pretender rode slowly through the streets
    to the Tower; but the greater part were quiet, and very curious to
    see him. From the Tower, he was taken to the Palace at
    Westminster, and there lodged like a gentleman, though closely
    watched. He was examined every now and then as to his imposture;
    but the King was so secret in all he did, that even then he gave it
    a consequence, which it cannot be supposed to have in itself
    deserved.

    At last Perkin Warbeck ran away, and took refuge in another
    sanctuary near Richmond in Surrey. From this he was again
    persuaded to deliver himself up; and, being conveyed to London, he
    stood in the stocks for a whole day, outside Westminster Hall, and
    there read a paper purporting to be his full confession, and
    relating his history as the King's agents had originally described
    it. He was then shut up in the Tower again, in the company of the
    Earl of Warwick, who had now been there for fourteen years: ever
    since his removal out of Yorkshire, except when the King had had
    him at Court, and had shown him to the people, to prove the
    imposture of the Baker's boy. It is but too probable, when we
    consider the crafty character of Henry the Seventh, that these two
    were brought together for a cruel purpose. A plot was soon
    discovered between them and the keepers, to murder the Governor,
    get possession of the keys, and proclaim Perkin Warbeck as King
    Richard the Fourth. That there was some such plot, is likely; that
    they were tempted into it, is at least as likely; that the
    unfortunate Earl of Warwick - last male of the Plantagenet line -
    was too unused to the world, and too ignorant and simple to know
    much about it, whatever it was, is perfectly certain; and that it
    was the King's interest to get rid of him, is no less so. He was
    beheaded on Tower Hill, and Perkin Warbeck was hanged at Tyburn.

    Such was the end of the pretended Duke of York, whose shadowy
    history was made more shadowy - and ever will be - by the mystery
    and craft of the King. If he had turned his great natural
    advantages to a more honest account, he might have lived a happy
    and respected life, even in those days. But he died upon a gallows
    at Tyburn, leaving the Scottish lady, who had loved him so well,
    kindly protected at the Queen's Court. After some time she forgot
    her old loves and troubles, as many people do with Time's merciful
    assistance, and married a Welsh gentleman. Her second husband, SIR
    MATTHEW CRADOC, more honest and more happy than her first, lies
    beside her in a tomb in the old church of Swansea.

    The ill-blood between France and England in this reign, arose out
    of the continued plotting of the Duchess of Burgundy, and disputes
    respecting the affairs of Brittany. The King feigned to be very
    patriotic, indignant, and warlike; but he always contrived so as
    never to make war in reality, and always to make money. His
    taxation of the people, on pretence of war with France, involved,
    at one time, a very dangerous insurrection, headed by Sir John
    Egremont, and a common man called John a Chambre. But it was
    subdued by the royal forces, under the command of the Earl of
    Surrey. The knighted John escaped to the Duchess of Burgundy, who
    was ever ready to receive any one who gave the King trouble; and
    the plain John was hanged at York, in the midst of a number of his
    men, but on a much higher gibbet, as being a greater traitor. Hung
    high or hung low, however, hanging is much the same to the person
    hung.

    Within a year after her marriage, the Queen had given birth to a
    son, who was called Prince Arthur, in remembrance of the old
    British prince of romance and story; and who, when all these events
    had happened, being then in his fifteenth year, was married to
    CATHERINE, the daughter of the Spanish monarch, with great
    rejoicings and bright prospects; but in a very few months he
    sickened and died. As soon as the King had recovered from his
    grief, he thought it a pity that the fortune of the Spanish
    Princess, amounting to two hundred thousand crowns, should go out
    of the family; and therefore arranged that the young widow should
    marry his second son HENRY, then twelve years of age, when he too
    should be fifteen. There were objections to this marriage on the
    part of the clergy; but, as the infallible Pope was gained over,
    and, as he MUST be right, that settled the business for the time.
    The King's eldest daughter was provided for, and a long course of
    disturbance was considered to be set at rest, by her being married
    to the Scottish King.

    And now the Queen died. When the King had got over that grief too,
    his mind once more reverted to his darling money for consolation,
    and he thought of marrying the Dowager Queen of Naples, who was
    immensely rich: but, as it turned out not to be practicable to
    gain the money however practicable it might have been to gain the
    lady, he gave up the idea. He was not so fond of her but that he
    soon proposed to marry the Dowager Duchess of Savoy; and, soon
    afterwards, the widow of the King of Castile, who was raving mad.
    But he made a money-bargain instead, and married neither.

    The Duchess of Burgundy, among the other discontented people to
    whom she had given refuge, had sheltered EDMUND DE LA POLE (younger
    brother of that Earl of Lincoln who was killed at Stoke), now Earl
    of Suffolk. The King had prevailed upon him to return to the
    marriage of Prince Arthur; but, he soon afterwards went away again;
    and then the King, suspecting a conspiracy, resorted to his
    favourite plan of sending him some treacherous friends, and buying
    of those scoundrels the secrets they disclosed or invented. Some
    arrests and executions took place in consequence. In the end, the
    King, on a promise of not taking his life, obtained possession of
    the person of Edmund de la Pole, and shut him up in the Tower.

    This was his last enemy. If he had lived much longer he would have
    made many more among the people, by the grinding exaction to which
    he constantly exposed them, and by the tyrannical acts of his two
    prime favourites in all money-raising matters, EDMUND DUDLEY and
    RICHARD EMPSON. But Death - the enemy who is not to be bought off
    or deceived, and on whom no money, and no treachery has any effect
    - presented himself at this juncture, and ended the King's reign.
    He died of the gout, on the twenty-second of April, one thousand
    five hundred and nine, and in the fifty-third year of his age,
    after reigning twenty-four years; he was buried in the beautiful
    Chapel of Westminster Abbey, which he had himself founded, and
    which still bears his name.

    It was in this reign that the great CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, on behalf
    of Spain, discovered what was then called The New World. Great
    wonder, interest, and hope of wealth being awakened in England
    thereby, the King and the merchants of London and Bristol fitted
    out an English expedition for further discoveries in the New World,
    and entrusted it to SEBASTIAN CABOT, of Bristol, the son of a
    Venetian pilot there. He was very successful in his voyage, and
    gained high reputation, both for himself and England.
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