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    Chapter 1
    (_underscores_ denote italics)

















    WM. C. TAYLOR, LL.D.,




    The researches of Niebuhr and several other distinguished German scholars have thrown a new light on Roman History, and enabled us to discover the true constitution of that republic which once ruled the destinies of the known world, and the influence of whose literature and laws is still powerful in every civilized state, and will probably continue to be felt to the remotest posterity. These discoveries have, however, been hitherto useless to junior students in this country; the works of the German critics being unsuited to the purposes of schools, not only from their price, but also from the extensive learning requisite to follow them through their laborious disquisitions. The editor has, therefore, thought that it would be no unacceptable service, to prefix a few Introductory Chapters, detailing such results from their inquiries as best elucidate the character and condition of the Roman people, and explain the most important portion of the history. The struggles between the patricians and plebeians, respecting the agrarian laws have been so strangely misrepresented, even by some of the best historians, that the nature of the contest may, with truth, be said to have been wholly misunderstood before the publication of Niebuhr's work: a perfect explanation of these important matters cannot be expected in a work of this kind; the Editors trust that the brief account given here of the Roman tenure of land, and the nature of the agrarian laws, will be found sufficient for all practical purposes. After all the researches that have been made, the true origin of the Latin people, and even of the Roman city, is involved in impenetrable obscurity; the legendary traditions collected by the historians are, however, the best guides that we can now follow; but it would be absurd to bestow implicit credit on all the accounts they have given, and the editor has, therefore, pointed out the uncertain nature of the early history, not to encourage scepticism, but to accustom students to consider the nature of historical evidence, and thus early form the useful habit of criticising and weighing testimony.

    The authorities followed in the geographical chapters, are principally Heeren and Cramer; the treatise of the latter on ancient Italy is one of the most valuable aids acquired by historical students within the present century. Much important information respecting the peculiar character of the Roman religion has been derived from Mr. Keightley's excellent Treatise on Mythology; the only writer who has, in our language, hitherto, explained the difference between the religious systems of Greece and Rome. The account of the barbarians in the conclusion of the volume, is, for the most part, extracted from "Koch's Revolutions of Europe;" the sources of the notes, scattered through the volume, are too varied for a distinct acknowledgment of each.

    * * * * * * * * * * * *



    I. Geographical Outline of Italy

    II. The Latin Language and People--Credibility of the Early History

    III. Topography of Rome

    IV. The Roman Constitution

    V. The Roman Tenure of Land--Colonial Government

    VI. The Roman Religion

    VII. The Roman Army and Navy

    VIII. Roman Law.--Finance

    IX. The public Amusements and private Life of the Romans

    X. Geography of the empire at the time of its greatest extent



    I. Of the Origin of the Romans

    II. From the building of Rome to the death of Romulus

    III. From the death of Romulus to the death of Numa

    IV. From the death of Numa to the death of Tullus Hostilius

    V. From the death of Tullus Hostilius to the death of Ancus Martius

    VI. From the death of Ancus Martius to the death of Taiquinius Priscus

    VII. From the death of Tarquinius Priscus to the death of Servius Tullius

    VIII. From the death of Servius Tullius to the banishment of Tarquinius Superbus

    IX. From the banishment of Tarquinius Superbus to the appointment of the first Dictator

    X. From the Creation of the Dictator to the election of the Tribunes

    XI. From the Creation of the Tribunes to the appointment of the Decemviri, viz.

    Section 1.--The great Volscian war

    ---- 2.--Civil commotions on account of the Agrarian law

    XII. From the creation of the Decemviri to the destruction of the city by the Gauls, viz.

    Section 1.--Tyranny of the Decemviri

    ---- 2.--Crimes of Appius--Revolt of the army

    ---- 3.--Election of Military Tribunes--Creation of the Censorship

    ---- 4.--Siege and capture of Veii--Invasion of the Gauls

    ---- 5.--Deliverance of Rome from the Gauls

    XIII. From the wars with the Samnites to the First Punic war, viz.

    Section 1.--The Latin war

    ---- 2.--Invasion of Italy by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus

    ---- 3.--Defeat and departure of Pyrrhus

    XIV. From the beginning of the First Punic war to the beginning of the Second, viz.

    Section 1.--Causes and commencement of the war--Invasion of Africa by Regulus

    ---- 2.--Death of Regulus--Final Triumph of the Romans

    XV. The Second Punic war, viz.

    Section 1.--Commencement of the war--Hannibal's invasion of Italy

    ---- 2.--Victorious career of Hannibal

    ---- 3.--Retrieval of the Roman affairs--Invasion of Africa by Scipio--Conclusion of the war

    XVI. Macedonian, Syrian, Third Punic, and Spanish wars

    XVII. From the Destruction of Carthage to the end of the Sedition of the Gracchi, viz.

    Section 1.--Murder of Tiberius Gracchus

    ---- 2.--Slaughter of Caius Gracchus and his adherents

    XVIII. From the Sedition of Gracchus to the perpetual Dictatorship of Sylla, viz.

    Section 1.--The Jugurthine and Social wars

    ---- 2.--The cruel massacres perpetrated by Marius and Sylla

    XIX. From the perpetual Dictatorship of Sylla to the first Triumvirate

    XX. From the First Triumvirate to the death of Pompey, viz.

    Section 1.--Cæsar's wars in Gaul--Commencement of the Civil war

    ---- 2.--Cæsar's victorious career

    ---- 3.--The campaign in Thessaly and Epirus

    ---- 4.--The battle of Pharsalia----5.--Death of Pompey

    XXI. From the Destruction of the Commonwealth to the establishment of the first Emperor, Augustus, viz.

    Section 1.--Cæsar's Egyptian campaign

    ---- 2.--The African campaign

    ---- 3.--Death of Cæsar

    ---- 4.--The Second Triumvirate

    ---- 5.--The Battle of Philippi

    ---- 6.--Dissensions of Antony and Augustus

    ---- 7.--The Battle of Actium

    ---- 8.--The Conquest of Egypt

    XXII. From the accession of Augustus to the death of Domitian, viz.

    Section 1.--The beneficent Administration of Augustus

    ---- 2.--Death of Augustus

    ---- 3.--The reign of Tiberius--Death of Germanicus

    ---- 4.--Death of Sejanus and Tiberius--Accession of Caligula

    ---- 5.--Extravagant cruelties of Caligula--His death

    ---- 6.--The Reign of Claudius

    ---- 7.--The reign of Nero

    ---- 8.--Death of Nero--Reigns of Galba and Otho

    ---- 9.--The reigns of Vitellius and Vespasian--The siege of Jerusalem by Titus

    ---- 10.--The Reigns of Titus and Domitian

    ---- 11.--The assassination of Domitian

    XXIII. The Five good emperors of Rome, viz.

    Section 1.--The Reigns of Nerva and Trajan

    ---- 2.--The Reign of Adrian

    ---- 3.--The Reign of Antoninus Pius

    ---- 4.--The reign of Marcus Aurelius

    XXIV. From the accession of Commodus to the change of the seat of Government, from Rome to Constantinople, viz.

    Section 1.--The Reigns of Commodus, Pertinax, and Didius

    ---- 2.--The Reigns of Severus, Caracalla, Maximus, and Heliogabalus

    ---- 3.--The reigns of Alexander, Maximin, and Gordian

    ---- 4.--The Reigns of Philip, Decius, Gallus, Valerian, Claudius, Aurelian, Tacitus, and Probus

    ---- 5.--The reigns of Carus, Carinus, Dioclesian, and Constantius--Accession of Constantine

    ---- 6.--The reign of Constantine XXV.

    XXV. From the death of Constantine, to the reunion of the Roman empire under Theodosius the Great, viz.

    Section 1.--The Reign of Constantius

    ---- 2.--The Reigns of Julian Jovian, the Valentinians, and Theodosius

    XXVI. From the death of Theodosius to the subversion of the Western Empire, viz.

    Section 1.--The division of the Roman dominions into the Eastern and Western empires

    ---- 2.--Decline and fall of the Western empire

    XXVII. Historical notices of the different barbarous tribes that aided in overthrowing the Roman empire

    XXVIII. The progress of Christianity


    Chronological Index

    * * * * * * * * * * * *
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