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    Chapter 3

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    Colonel Lloyd kept a large and finely cultivated
    garden, which afforded almost constant employment
    for four men, besides the chief gardener, (Mr.
    M'Durmond.) This garden was probably the great-
    est attraction of the place. During the summer
    months, people came from far and near--from
    Baltimore, Easton, and Annapolis--to see it. It
    abounded in fruits of almost every description, from
    the hardy apple of the north to the delicate orange
    of the south. This garden was not the least source
    of trouble on the plantation. Its excellent fruit was
    quite a temptation to the hungry swarms of boys,
    as well as the older slaves, belonging to the colonel,
    few of whom had the virtue or the vice to resist
    it. Scarcely a day passed, during the summer, but
    that some slave had to take the lash for stealing fruit.
    The colonel had to resort to all kinds of stratagems
    to keep his slaves out of the garden. The last and
    most successful one was that of tarring his fence
    all around; after which, if a slave was caught with
    any tar upon his person, it was deemed sufficient
    proof that he had either been into the garden, or had
    tried to get in. In either case, he was severely whip-
    ped by the chief gardener. This plan worked well;
    the slaves became as fearful of tar as of the lash.
    They seemed to realize the impossibility of touching
    TAR without being defiled.

    The colonel also kept a splendid riding equipage.
    His stable and carriage-house presented the appear-
    ance of some of our large city livery establishments.
    His horses were of the finest form and noblest blood.
    His carriage-house contained three splendid coaches,
    three or four gigs, besides dearborns and barouches
    of the most fashionable style.

    This establishment was under the care of two
    slaves--old Barney and young Barney--father and son.
    To attend to this establishment was their sole work.
    But it was by no means an easy employment; for in
    nothing was Colonel Lloyd more particular than in
    the management of his horses. The slightest inat-
    tention to these was unpardonable, and was visited
    upon those, under whose care they were placed, with
    the severest punishment; no excuse could shield
    them, if the colonel only suspected any want of
    attention to his horses--a supposition which he fre-
    quently indulged, and one which, of course, made
    the office of old and young Barney a very trying one.
    They never knew when they were safe from punish-
    ment. They were frequently whipped when least
    deserving, and escaped whipping when most deserv-
    ing it. Every thing depended upon the looks of the
    horses, and the state of Colonel Lloyd's own mind
    when his horses were brought to him for use. If a
    horse did not move fast enough, or hold his head
    high enough, it was owing to some fault of his keep-
    ers. It was painful to stand near the stable-door,
    and hear the various complaints against the keepers
    when a horse was taken out for use. "This horse has
    not had proper attention. He has not been suffi-
    ciently rubbed and curried, or he has not been prop-
    erly fed; his food was too wet or too dry; he got it
    too soon or too late; he was too hot or too cold; he
    had too much hay, and not enough of grain; or he
    had too much grain, and not enough of hay; instead
    of old Barney's attending to the horse, he had very
    improperly left it to his son." To all these com-
    plaints, no matter how unjust, the slave must an-
    swer never a word. Colonel Lloyd could not brook
    any contradiction from a slave. When he spoke, a
    slave must stand, listen, and tremble; and such was
    literally the case. I have seen Colonel Lloyd make
    old Barney, a man between fifty and sixty years of
    age, uncover his bald head, kneel down upon the
    cold, damp ground, and receive upon his naked and
    toil-worn shoulders more than thirty lashes at the
    time. Colonel Lloyd had three sons--Edward, Mur-
    ray, and Daniel,--and three sons-in-law, Mr. Winder,
    Mr. Nicholson, and Mr. Lowndes. All of these lived
    at the Great House Farm, and enjoyed the luxury of
    whipping the servants when they pleased, from old
    Barney down to William Wilkes, the coach-driver.
    I have seen Winder make one of the house-servants
    stand off from him a suitable distance to be touched
    with the end of his whip, and at every stroke raise
    great ridges upon his back.

    To describe the wealth of Colonel Lloyd would
    be almost equal to describing the riches of Job. He
    kept from ten to fifteen house-servants. He was said
    to own a thousand slaves, and I think this estimate
    quite within the truth. Colonel Lloyd owned so
    many that he did not know them when he saw them;
    nor did all the slaves of the out-farms know him. It
    is reported of him, that, while riding along the road
    one day, he met a colored man, and addressed him
    in the usual manner of speaking to colored people
    on the public highways of the south: "Well, boy,
    whom do you belong to?" "To Colonel Lloyd," re-
    plied the slave. "Well, does the colonel treat you
    well?" "No, sir," was the ready reply. "What, does
    he work you too hard?" "Yes, sir." "Well, don't he
    give you enough to eat?" "Yes, sir, he gives me
    enough, such as it is."

    The colonel, after ascertaining where the slave
    belonged, rode on; the man also went on about his
    business, not dreaming that he had been conversing
    with his master. He thought, said, and heard noth-
    ing more of the matter, until two or three weeks
    afterwards. The poor man was then informed by his
    overseer that, for having found fault with his master,
    he was now to be sold to a Georgia trader. He was
    immediately chained and handcuffed; and thus,
    without a moment's warning, he was snatched away,
    and forever sundered, from his family and friends,
    by a hand more unrelenting than death. This is the
    penalty of telling the truth, of telling the simple
    truth, in answer to a series of plain questions.

    It is partly in consequence of such facts, that
    slaves, when inquired of as to their condition and
    the character of their masters, almost universally say
    they are contented, and that their masters are kind.
    The slaveholders have been known to send in spies
    among their slaves, to ascertain their views and feel-
    ings in regard to their condition. The frequency of
    this has had the effect to establish among the slaves
    the maxim, that a still tongue makes a wise head.
    They suppress the truth rather than take the con-
    sequences of telling it, and in so doing prove them-
    selves a part of the human family. If they have any
    thing to say of their masters, it is generally in their
    masters' favor, especially when speaking to an un-
    tried man. I have been frequently asked, when a
    slave, if I had a kind master, and do not remember
    ever to have given a negative answer; nor did I, in
    pursuing this course, consider myself as uttering what
    was absolutely false; for I always measured the kind-
    ness of my master by the standard of kindness set
    up among slaveholders around us. Moreover, slaves
    are like other people, and imbibe prejudices quite
    common to others. They think their own better than
    that of others. Many, under the influence of this
    prejudice, think their own masters are better than
    the masters of other slaves; and this, too, in some
    cases, when the very reverse is true. Indeed, it is
    not uncommon for slaves even to fall out and quar-
    rel among themselves about the relative goodness of
    their masters, each contending for the superior good-
    ness of his own over that of the others. At the very
    same time, they mutually execrate their masters
    when viewed separately. It was so on our plantation.
    When Colonel Lloyd's slaves met the slaves of Jacob
    Jepson, they seldom parted without a quarrel about
    their masters; Colonel Lloyd's slaves contending that
    he was the richest, and Mr. Jepson's slaves that he
    was the smartest, and most of a man. Colonel Lloyd's
    slaves would boast his ability to buy and sell Jacob
    Jepson. Mr. Jepson's slaves would boast his ability
    to whip Colonel Lloyd. These quarrels would almost
    always end in a fight between the parties, and those
    that whipped were supposed to have gained the
    point at issue. They seemed to think that the great-
    ness of their masters was transferable to themselves.
    It was considered as being bad enough to be a
    slave; but to be a poor man's slave was deemed a
    disgrace indeed!
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