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    Chapter 11

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    Chapter 12
    Previous Chapter
    I now come to that part of my life during which I
    planned, and finally succeeded in making, my escape
    from slavery. But before narrating any of the pe-
    culiar circumstances, I deem it proper to make
    known my intention not to state all the facts con-
    nected with the transaction. My reasons for pursuing
    this course may be understood from the following:
    First, were I to give a minute statement of all the
    facts, it is not only possible, but quite probable, that
    others would thereby be involved in the most embar-
    rassing difficulties. Secondly, such a statement would
    most undoubtedly induce greater vigilance on the
    part of slaveholders than has existed heretofore
    among them; which would, of course, be the means
    of guarding a door whereby some dear brother bond-
    man might escape his galling chains. I deeply regret
    the necessity that impels me to suppress any thing
    of importance connected with my experience in
    slavery. It would afford me great pleasure indeed,
    as well as materially add to the interest of my nar-
    rative, were I at liberty to gratify a curiosity, which
    I know exists in the minds of many, by an accurate
    statement of all the facts pertaining to my most
    fortunate escape. But I must deprive myself of this
    pleasure, and the curious of the gratification which
    such a statement would afford. I would allow my-
    self to suffer under the greatest imputations which
    evil-minded men might suggest, rather than excul-
    pate myself, and thereby run the hazard of closing
    the slightest avenue by which a brother slave might
    clear himself of the chains and fetters of slavery.

    I have never approved of the very public manner
    in which some of our western friends have conducted
    what they call the ~underground railroad,~ but which
    I think, by their open declarations, has been made
    most emphatically the ~upperground railroad.~ I honor
    those good men and women for their noble daring,
    and applaud them for willingly subjecting them-
    selves to bloody persecution, by openly avowing their
    participation in the escape of slaves. I, however, can
    see very little good resulting from such a course,
    either to themselves or the slaves escaping; while,
    upon the other hand, I see and feel assured that
    those open declarations are a positive evil to the
    slaves remaining, who are seeking to escape. They
    do nothing towards enlightening the slave, whilst
    they do much towards enlightening the master.
    They stimulate him to greater watchfulness, and
    enhance his power to capture his slave. We owe
    something to the slave south of the line as well as
    to those north of it; and in aiding the latter on their
    way to freedom, we should be careful to do nothing
    which would be likely to hinder the former from
    escaping from slavery. I would keep the merciless
    slaveholder profoundly ignorant of the means of
    flight adopted by the slave. I would leave him to
    imagine himself surrounded by myriads of invisible
    tormentors, ever ready to snatch from his infernal
    grasp his trembling prey. Let him be left to feel
    his way in the dark; let darkness commensurate with
    his crime hover over him; and let him feel that at
    every step he takes, in pursuit of the flying bondman,
    he is running the frightful risk of having his hot
    brains dashed out by an invisible agency. Let us
    render the tyrant no aid; let us not hold the light
    by which he can trace the footprints of our flying
    brother. But enough of this. I will now proceed to
    the statement of those facts, connected with my
    escape, for which I am alone responsible, and for
    which no one can be made to suffer but myself.

    In the early part of the year 1838, I became quite
    restless. I could see no reason why I should, at the
    end of each week, pour the reward of my toil into
    the purse of my master. When I carried to him my
    weekly wages, he would, after counting the money,
    look me in the face with a robber-like fierceness,
    and ask, "Is this all?" He was satisfied with nothing
    less than the last cent. He would, however, when I
    made him six dollars, sometimes give me six cents,
    to encourage me. It had the opposite effect. I re-
    garded it as a sort of admission of my right to the
    whole. The fact that he gave me any part of my
    wages was proof, to my mind, that he believed me
    entitled to the whole of them. I always felt worse
    for having received any thing; for I feared that the
    giving me a few cents would ease his conscience,
    and make him feel himself to be a pretty honorable
    sort of robber. My discontent grew upon me. I was
    ever on the look-out for means of escape; and, find-
    ing no direct means, I determined to try to hire my
    time, with a view of getting money with which to
    make my escape. In the spring of 1838, when Master
    Thomas came to Baltimore to purchase his spring
    goods, I got an opportunity, and applied to him to
    allow me to hire my time. He unhesitatingly refused
    my request, and told me this was another stratagem
    by which to escape. He told me I could go nowhere
    but that he could get me; and that, in the event
    of my running away, he should spare no pains in his
    efforts to catch me. He exhorted me to content
    myself, and be obedient. He told me, if I would
    be happy, I must lay out no plans for the future.
    He said, if I behaved myself properly, he would take
    care of me. Indeed, he advised me to complete
    thoughtlessness of the future, and taught me to de-
    pend solely upon him for happiness. He seemed to
    see fully the pressing necessity of setting aside my
    intellectual nature, in order to contentment in
    slavery. But in spite of him, and even in spite of
    myself, I continued to think, and to think about
    the injustice of my enslavement, and the means of

    About two months after this, I applied to Master
    Hugh for the privilege of hiring my time. He was
    not acquainted with the fact that I had applied to
    Master Thomas, and had been refused. He too, at
    first, seemed disposed to refuse; but, after some re-
    flection, he granted me the privilege, and proposed
    the following terms: I was to be allowed all my
    time, make all contracts with those for whom I
    worked, and find my own employment; and, in re-
    turn for this liberty, I was to pay him three dollars
    at the end of each week; find myself in calking tools,
    and in board and clothing. My board was two dol-
    lars and a half per week. This, with the wear and
    tear of clothing and calking tools, made my regular
    expenses about six dollars per week. This amount
    I was compelled to make up, or relinquish the
    privilege of hiring my time. Rain or shine, work or
    no work, at the end of each week the money must
    be forthcoming, or I must give up my privilege. This
    arrangement, it will be perceived, was decidedly in
    my master's favor. It relieved him of all need of
    looking after me. His money was sure. He received
    all the benefits of slaveholding without its evils;
    while I endured all the evils of a slave, and suffered
    all the care and anxiety of a freeman. I found it a
    hard bargain. But, hard as it was, I thought it better
    than the old mode of getting along. It was a step
    towards freedom to be allowed to bear the respon-
    sibilities of a freeman, and I was determined to hold
    on upon it. I bent myself to the work of making
    money. I was ready to work at night as well as day,
    and by the most untiring perseverance and industry,
    I made enough to meet my expenses, and lay up
    a little money every week. I went on thus from May
    till August. Master Hugh then refused to allow me
    to hire my time longer. The ground for his refusal
    was a failure on my part, one Saturday night, to pay
    him for my week's time. This failure was occasioned
    by my attending a camp meeting about ten miles
    from Baltimore. During the week, I had entered
    into an engagement with a number of young friends
    to start from Baltimore to the camp ground early
    Saturday evening; and being detained by my em-
    ployer, I was unable to get down to Master Hugh's
    without disappointing the company. I knew that
    Master Hugh was in no special need of the money
    that night. I therefore decided to go to camp meet-
    ing, and upon my return pay him the three dollars.
    I staid at the camp meeting one day longer than I
    intended when I left. But as soon as I returned, I
    called upon him to pay him what he considered his
    due. I found him very angry; he could scarce restrain
    his wrath. He said he had a great mind to give me a
    severe whipping. He wished to know how I dared
    go out of the city without asking his permission. I
    told him I hired my time and while I paid him the
    price which he asked for it, I did not know that I
    was bound to ask him when and where I should go.
    This reply troubled him; and, after reflecting a few
    moments, he turned to me, and said I should hire
    my time no longer; that the next thing he should
    know of, I would be running away. Upon the same
    plea, he told me to bring my tools and clothing
    home forthwith. I did so; but instead of seeking
    work, as I had been accustomed to do previously to
    hiring my time, I spent the whole week without
    the performance of a single stroke of work. I did this
    in retaliation. Saturday night, he called upon me
    as usual for my week's wages. I told him I had no
    wages; I had done no work that week. Here we
    were upon the point of coming to blows. He raved,
    and swore his determination to get hold of me. I did
    not allow myself a single word; but was resolved, if
    he laid the weight of his hand upon me, it should
    be blow for blow. He did not strike me, but told me
    that he would find me in constant employment in
    future. I thought the matter over during the next day,
    Sunday, and finally resolved upon the third day of
    September, as the day upon which I would make a
    second attempt to secure my freedom. I now had
    three weeks during which to prepare for my journey.
    Early on Monday morning, before Master Hugh had
    time to make any engagement for me, I went out
    and got employment of Mr. Butler, at his ship-yard
    near the drawbridge, upon what is called the City
    Block, thus making it unnecessary for him to seek
    employment for me. At the end of the week, I
    brought him between eight and nine dollars. He
    seemed very well pleased, and asked why I did not
    do the same the week before. He little knew what
    my plans were. My object in working steadily was
    to remove any suspicion he might entertain of my
    intent to run away; and in this I succeeded admi-
    rably. I suppose he thought I was never better
    satisfied with my condition than at the very time
    during which I was planning my escape. The second
    week passed, and again I carried him my full wages;
    and so well pleased was he, that he gave me twenty-
    five cents, (quite a large sum for a slaveholder to
    give a slave,) and bade me to make a good use of it.
    I told him I would.

    Things went on without very smoothly indeed,
    but within there was trouble. It is impossible for
    me to describe my feelings as the time of my con-
    templated start drew near. I had a number of warm-
    hearted friends in Baltimore,--friends that I loved
    almost as I did my life,--and the thought of being
    separated from them forever was painful beyond
    expression. It is my opinion that thousands would
    escape from slavery, who now remain, but for the
    strong cords of affection that bind them to their
    friends. The thought of leaving my friends was de-
    cidedly the most painful thought with which I had
    to contend. The love of them was my tender point,
    and shook my decision more than all things else.
    Besides the pain of separation, the dread and appre-
    hension of a failure exceeded what I had experienced
    at my first attempt. The appalling defeat I then
    sustained returned to torment me. I felt assured
    that, if I failed in this attempt, my case would be
    a hopeless one--it would seal my fate as a slave for-
    ever. I could not hope to get off with any thing less
    than the severest punishment, and being placed
    beyond the means of escape. It required no very
    vivid imagination to depict the most frightful
    scenes through which I should have to pass, in case
    I failed. The wretchedness of slavery, and the
    blessedness of freedom, were perpetually before me.
    It was life and death with me. But I remained
    firm, and, according to my resolution, on the third
    day of September, 1838, I left my chains, and suc-
    ceeded in reaching New York without the slightest
    interruption of any kind. How I did so,--what means
    I adopted,--what direction I travelled, and by what
    mode of conveyance,--I must leave unexplained,
    for the reasons before mentioned.

    I have been frequently asked how I felt when I
    found myself in a free State. I have never been able
    to answer the question with any satisfaction to my-
    self. It was a moment of the highest excitement I
    ever experienced. I suppose I felt as one may imagine
    the unarmed mariner to feel when he is rescued
    by a friendly man-of-war from the pursuit of a pirate.
    In writing to a dear friend, immediately after my
    arrival at New York, I said I felt like one who had
    escaped a den of hungry lions. This state of mind,
    however, very soon subsided; and I was again seized
    with a feeling of great insecurity and loneliness. I
    was yet liable to be taken back, and subjected to
    all the tortures of slavery. This in itself was enough
    to damp the ardor of my enthusiasm. But the lone-
    liness overcame me. There I was in the midst of
    thousands, and yet a perfect stranger; without home
    and without friends, in the midst of thousands of my
    own brethren--children of a common Father, and
    yet I dared not to unfold to any one of them my
    sad condition. I was afraid to speak to any one for
    fear of speaking to the wrong one, and thereby fall-
    ing into the hands of money-loving kidnappers,
    whose business it was to lie in wait for the panting
    fugitive, as the ferocious beasts of the forest lie in
    wait for their prey. The motto which I adopted
    when I started from slavery was this--"Trust no
    man!" I saw in every white man an enemy, and in
    almost every colored man cause for distrust. It was
    a most painful situation; and, to understand it, one
    must needs experience it, or imagine himself in
    similar circumstances. Let him be a fugitive slave in
    a strange land--a land given up to be the hunting-
    ground for slaveholders--whose inhabitants are legal-
    ized kidnappers--where he is every moment sub-
    jected to the terrible liability of being seized upon
    by his fellowmen, as the hideous crocodile seizes
    upon his prey!--I say, let him place himself in my
    situation--without home or friends--without money
    or credit--wanting shelter, and no one to give it--
    wanting bread, and no money to buy it,--and at the
    same time let him feel that he is pursued by merci-
    less men-hunters, and in total darkness as to what
    to do, where to go, or where to stay,--perfectly help-
    less both as to the means of defence and means of
    escape,--in the midst of plenty, yet suffering the ter-
    rible gnawings of hunger,--in the midst of houses,
    yet having no home,--among fellow-men, yet feeling
    as if in the midst of wild beasts, whose greediness
    to swallow up the trembling and half-famished fugi-
    tive is only equalled by that with which the monsters
    of the deep swallow up the helpless fish upon which
    they subsist,--I say, let him be placed in this most
    trying situation,--the situation in which I was placed,
    --then, and not till then, will he fully appreciate the
    hardships of, and know how to sympathize with, the
    toil-worn and whip-scarred fugitive slave.

    Thank Heaven, I remained but a short time in
    this distressed situation. I was relieved from it by the
    humane hand of Mr. DAVID RUGGLES, whose vigi-
    lance, kindness, and perseverance, I shall never for-
    get. I am glad of an opportunity to express, as far as
    words can, the love and gratitude I bear him. Mr.
    Ruggles is now afflicted with blindness, and is him-
    self in need of the same kind offices which he was
    once so forward in the performance of toward others.
    I had been in New York but a few days, when Mr.
    Ruggles sought me out, and very kindly took me
    to his boarding-house at the corner of Church and
    Lespenard Streets. Mr. Ruggles was then very deeply
    engaged in the memorable ~Darg~ case, as well as at-
    tending to a number of other fugitive slaves, devis-
    ing ways and means for their successful escape; and,
    though watched and hemmed in on almost every
    side, he seemed to be more than a match for his

    Very soon after I went to Mr. Ruggles, he wished
    to know of me where I wanted to go; as he deemed
    it unsafe for me to remain in New York. I told him
    I was a calker, and should like to go where I could
    get work. I thought of going to Canada; but he de-
    cided against it, and in favor of my going to New
    Bedford, thinking I should be able to get work there
    at my trade. At this time, Anna,* my intended wife,
    came on; for I wrote to her immediately after my
    arrival at New York, (notwithstanding my homeless,
    houseless, and helpless condition,) informing her of
    my successful flight, and wishing her to come on
    forthwith. In a few days after her arrival, Mr. Rug-
    gles called in the Rev. J. W. C. Pennington, who, in
    the presence of Mr. Ruggles, Mrs. Michaels, and
    two or three others, performed the marriage cere-
    mony, and gave us a certificate, of which the fol-
    lowing is an exact copy:--

    "This may certify, that I joined together in holy
    matrimony Frederick Johnson+ and Anna Murray, as
    man and wife, in the presence of Mr. David Ruggles
    and Mrs. Michaels.


    "NEW YORK, SEPT. 15, 1838"

    Upon receiving this certificate, and a five-dollar
    bill from Mr. Ruggles, I shouldered one part of our
    baggage, and Anna took up the other, and we set
    out forthwith to take passage on board of the steam-
    boat John W. Richmond for Newport, on our way
    to New Bedford. Mr. Ruggles gave me a letter to a
    Mr. Shaw in Newport, and told me, in case my
    money did not serve me to New Bedford, to stop in
    Newport and obtain further assistance; but upon our

    *She was free.

    +I had changed my name from Frederick BAILEY
    to that of JOHNSON.

    arrival at Newport, we were so anxious to get to a
    place of safety, that, notwithstanding we lacked the
    necessary money to pay our fare, we decided to take
    seats in the stage, and promise to pay when we got
    to New Bedford. We were encouraged to do this by
    two excellent gentlemen, residents of New Bedford,
    whose names I afterward ascertained to be Joseph
    Ricketson and William C. Taber. They seemed at
    once to understand our circumstances, and gave us
    such assurance of their friendliness as put us fully
    at ease in their presence. It was good indeed to meet
    with such friends, at such a time. Upon reaching
    New Bedford, we were directed to the house of Mr.
    Nathan Johnson, by whom we were kindly received,
    and hospitably provided for. Both Mr. and Mrs.
    Johnson took a deep and lively interest in our wel-
    fare. They proved themselves quite worthy of the
    name of abolitionists. When the stage-driver found
    us unable to pay our fare, he held on upon our bag-
    gage as security for the debt. I had but to mention
    the fact to Mr. Johnson, and he forthwith advanced
    the money.

    We now began to feel a degree of safety, and to
    prepare ourselves for the duties and responsibilities
    of a life of freedom. On the morning after our ar-
    rival at New Bedford, while at the breakfast-table,
    the question arose as to what name I should be
    called by. The name given me by my mother was,
    "Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey." I, how-
    ever, had dispensed with the two middle names long
    before I left Maryland so that I was generally known
    by the name of "Frederick Bailey." I started from
    Baltimore bearing the name of "Stanley." When I
    got to New York, I again changed my name to "Fred-
    erick Johnson," and thought that would be the last
    change. But when I got to New Bedford, I found it
    necessary again to change my name. The reason of
    this necessity was, that there were so many Johnsons
    in New Bedford, it was already quite difficult to
    distinguish between them. I gave Mr. Johnson the
    privilege of choosing me a name, but told him he
    must not take from me the name of "Frederick."
    I must hold on to that, to preserve a sense of my
    identity. Mr. Johnson had just been reading the
    "Lady of the Lake," and at once suggested that my
    name be "Douglass." From that time until now I
    have been called "Frederick Douglass;" and as I am
    more widely known by that name than by either of
    the others, I shall continue to use it as my own.

    I was quite disappointed at the general appear-
    ance of things in New Bedford. The impression
    which I had received respecting the character and
    condition of the people of the north, I found to be
    singularly erroneous. I had very strangely supposed,
    while in slavery, that few of the comforts, and
    scarcely any of the luxuries, of life were enjoyed at
    the north, compared with what were enjoyed by the
    slaveholders of the south. I probably came to this
    conclusion from the fact that northern people owned
    no slaves. I supposed that they were about upon a
    level with the non-slaveholding population of the
    south. I knew ~they~ were exceedingly poor, and I had
    been accustomed to regard their poverty as the nec-
    essary consequence of their being non-slaveholders.
    I had somehow imbibed the opinion that, in the
    absence of slaves, there could be no wealth, and very
    little refinement. And upon coming to the north, I
    expected to meet with a rough, hard-handed, and
    uncultivated population, living in the most Spartan-
    like simplicity, knowing nothing of the ease, luxury,
    pomp, and grandeur of southern slaveholders. Such
    being my conjectures, any one acquainted with the
    appearance of New Bedford may very readily infer
    how palpably I must have seen my mistake.

    In the afternoon of the day when I reached New
    Bedford, I visited the wharves, to take a view of the
    shipping. Here I found myself surrounded with the
    strongest proofs of wealth. Lying at the wharves, and
    riding in the stream, I saw many ships of the finest
    model, in the best order, and of the largest size.
    Upon the right and left, I was walled in by granite
    warehouses of the widest dimensions, stowed to their
    utmost capacity with the necessaries and comforts
    of life. Added to this, almost every body seemed to
    be at work, but noiselessly so, compared with what
    I had been accustomed to in Baltimore. There were
    no loud songs heard from those engaged in loading
    and unloading ships. I heard no deep oaths or horrid
    curses on the laborer. I saw no whipping of men;
    but all seemed to go smoothly on. Every man ap-
    peared to understand his work, and went at it with
    a sober, yet cheerful earnestness, which betokened
    the deep interest which he felt in what he was doing,
    as well as a sense of his own dignity as a man. To me
    this looked exceedingly strange. From the wharves I
    strolled around and over the town, gazing with won-
    der and admiration at the splendid churches, beauti-
    ful dwellings, and finely-cultivated gardens; evincing
    an amount of wealth, comfort, taste, and refinement,
    such as I had never seen in any part of slaveholding

    Every thing looked clean, new, and beautiful. I
    saw few or no dilapidated houses, with poverty-
    stricken inmates; no half-naked children and bare-
    footed women, such as I had been accustomed to see
    in Hillsborough, Easton, St. Michael's, and Balti-
    more. The people looked more able, stronger, health-
    ier, and happier, than those of Maryland. I was for
    once made glad by a view of extreme wealth, without
    being saddened by seeing extreme poverty. But the
    most astonishing as well as the most interesting thing
    to me was the condition of the colored people, a
    great many of whom, like myself, had escaped
    thither as a refuge from the hunters of men. I found
    many, who had not been seven years out of their
    chains, living in finer houses, and evidently enjoying
    more of the comforts of life, than the average of
    slaveholders in Maryland. I will venture to assert,
    that my friend Mr. Nathan Johnson (of whom I
    can say with a grateful heart, "I was hungry, and he
    gave me meat; I was thirsty, and he gave me drink;
    I was a stranger, and he took me in") lived in a
    neater house; dined at a better table; took, paid
    for, and read, more newspapers; better understood
    the moral, religious, and political character of the
    nation,--than nine tenths of the slaveholders in Tal-
    bot county Maryland. Yet Mr. Johnson was a work-
    ing man. His hands were hardened by toil, and not
    his alone, but those also of Mrs. Johnson. I found the
    colored people much more spirited than I had sup-
    posed they would be. I found among them a deter-
    mination to protect each other from the blood-thirsty
    kidnapper, at all hazards. Soon after my arrival, I
    was told of a circumstance which illustrated their
    spirit. A colored man and a fugitive slave were on
    unfriendly terms. The former was heard to threaten
    the latter with informing his master of his where-
    abouts. Straightway a meeting was called among the
    colored people, under the stereotyped notice, "Busi-
    ness of importance!" The betrayer was invited to at-
    tend. The people came at the appointed hour, and
    organized the meeting by appointing a very religious
    old gentleman as president, who, I believe, made a
    prayer, after which he addressed the meeting as fol-
    lows: "~Friends, we have got him here, and I would
    recommend that you young men just take him out-
    side the door, and kill him!~" With this, a number
    of them bolted at him; but they were intercepted
    by some more timid than themselves, and the be-
    trayer escaped their vengeance, and has not been
    seen in New Bedford since. I believe there have
    been no more such threats, and should there be here-
    after, I doubt not that death would be the conse-

    I found employment, the third day after my ar-
    rival, in stowing a sloop with a load of oil. It was
    new, dirty, and hard work for me; but I went at it
    with a glad heart and a willing hand. I was now my
    own master. It was a happy moment, the rapture of
    which can be understood only by those who have
    been slaves. It was the first work, the reward of
    which was to be entirely my own. There was no Mas-
    ter Hugh standing ready, the moment I earned the
    money, to rob me of it. I worked that day with a
    pleasure I had never before experienced. I was at
    work for myself and newly-married wife. It was to me
    the starting-point of a new existence. When I got
    through with that job, I went in pursuit of a job of
    calking; but such was the strength of prejudice
    against color, among the white calkers, that they re-
    fused to work with me, and of course I could get no
    employment.* Finding my trade of no immediate
    benefit, I threw off my calking habiliments, and pre-
    pared myself to do any kind of work I could get to
    do. Mr. Johnson kindly let me have his wood-horse
    and saw, and I very soon found myself a plenty of
    work. There was no work too hard--none too dirty.
    I was ready to saw wood, shovel coal, carry wood,
    sweep the chimney, or roll oil casks,--all of which I

    * I am told that colored persons can now get employment
    at calking in New Bedford--a result of anti-slavery effort.
    did for nearly three years in New Bedford, before I
    became known to the anti-slavery world.

    In about four months after I went to New Bed-
    ford, there came a young man to me, and inquired
    if I did not wish to take the "Liberator." I told him
    I did; but, just having made my escape from slavery,
    I remarked that I was unable to pay for it then. I,
    however, finally became a subscriber to it. The paper
    came, and I read it from week to week with such
    feelings as it would be quite idle for me to attempt
    to describe. The paper became my meat and my
    drink. My soul was set all on fire. Its sympathy for
    my brethren in bonds--its scathing denunciations of
    slaveholders--its faithful exposures of slavery--and its
    powerful attacks upon the upholders of the institu-
    tion--sent a thrill of joy through my soul, such as
    I had never felt before!

    I had not long been a reader of the "Liberator,"
    before I got a pretty correct idea of the principles,
    measures and spirit of the anti-slavery reform. I took
    right hold of the cause. I could do but little; but
    what I could, I did with a joyful heart, and never felt
    happier than when in an anti-slavery meeting. I sel-
    dom had much to say at the meetings, because what
    I wanted to say was said so much better by others.
    But, while attending an anti-slavery convention at
    Nantucket, on the 11th of August, 1841, I felt
    strongly moved to speak, and was at the same time
    much urged to do so by Mr. William C. Coffin, a
    gentleman who had heard me speak in the colored
    people's meeting at New Bedford. It was a severe
    cross, and I took it up reluctantly. The truth was,
    I felt myself a slave, and the idea of speaking to
    white people weighed me down. I spoke but a few
    moments, when I felt a degree of freedom, and said
    what I desired with considerable ease. From that
    time until now, I have been engaged in pleading the
    cause of my brethren--with what success, and with
    what devotion, I leave those acquainted with my la-
    bors to decide.


    I find, since reading over the foregoing Narrative,
    that I have, in several instances, spoken in such a
    tone and manner, respecting religion, as may possi-
    bly lead those unacquainted with my religious views
    to suppose me an opponent of all religion. To re-
    move the liability of such misapprehension, I deem
    it proper to append the following brief explanation.
    What I have said respecting and against religion, I
    mean strictly to apply to the ~slaveholding religion~ of
    this land, and with no possible reference to Christi-
    anity proper; for, between the Christianity of this
    land, and the Christianity of Christ, I recognize the
    widest possible difference--so wide, that to receive
    the one as good, pure, and holy, is of necessity to re-
    ject the other as bad, corrupt, and wicked. To be the
    friend of the one, is of necessity to be the enemy
    of the other. I love the pure, peaceable, and impar-
    tial Christianity of Christ: I therefore hate the cor-
    rupt, slaveholding, women-whipping, cradle-plunder-
    ing, partial and hypocritical Christianity of this land.
    Indeed, I can see no reason, but the most deceitful
    one, for calling the religion of this land Christianity.
    I look upon it as the climax of all misnomers, the
    boldest of all frauds, and the grossest of all libels.
    Never was there a clearer case of "stealing the livery
    of the court of heaven to serve the devil in." I am
    filled with unutterable loathing when I contem-
    plate the religious pomp and show, together with the
    horrible inconsistencies, which every where surround
    me. We have men-stealers for ministers, women-
    whippers for missionaries, and cradle-plunderers for
    church members. The man who wields the blood-
    clotted cowskin during the week fills the pulpit on
    Sunday, and claims to be a minister of the meek and
    lowly Jesus. The man who robs me of my earnings
    at the end of each week meets me as a class-leader
    on Sunday morning, to show me the way of life,
    and the path of salvation. He who sells my sister,
    for purposes of prostitution, stands forth as the pi-
    ous advocate of purity. He who proclaims it a re-
    ligious duty to read the Bible denies me the right
    of learning to read the name of the God who made
    me. He who is the religious advocate of marriage
    robs whole millions of its sacred influence, and leaves
    them to the ravages of wholesale pollution. The
    warm defender of the sacredness of the family re-
    lation is the same that scatters whole families,--sun-
    dering husbands and wives, parents and children,
    sisters and brothers,--leaving the hut vacant, and the
    hearth desolate. We see the thief preaching against
    theft, and the adulterer against adultery. We have
    men sold to build churches, women sold to support
    the gospel, and babes sold to purchase Bibles for
    GOOD OF SOULS! The slave auctioneer's bell and the
    church-going bell chime in with each other, and the
    bitter cries of the heart-broken slave are drowned
    in the religious shouts of his pious master. Revivals
    of religion and revivals in the slave-trade go hand
    in hand together. The slave prison and the church
    stand near each other. The clanking of fetters and
    the rattling of chains in the prison, and the pious
    psalm and solemn prayer in the church, may be
    heard at the same time. The dealers in the bodies
    and souls of men erect their stand in the presence
    of the pulpit, and they mutually help each other.
    The dealer gives his blood-stained gold to support
    the pulpit, and the pulpit, in return, covers his in-
    fernal business with the garb of Christianity. Here
    we have religion and robbery the allies of each other
    --devils dressed in angels' robes, and hell presenting
    the semblance of paradise.

    "Just God! and these are they,
    Who minister at thine altar, God of right!
    Men who their hands, with prayer and blessing, lay
    On Israel's ark of light.

    "What! preach, and kidnap men?
    Give thanks, and rob thy own afflicted poor?
    Talk of thy glorious liberty, and then
    Bolt hard the captive's door?

    "What! servants of thy own
    Merciful Son, who came to seek and save
    The homeless and the outcast, fettering down
    The tasked and plundered slave!

    "Pilate and Herod friends!
    Chief priests and rulers, as of old, combine!
    Just God and holy! is that church which lends
    Strength to the spoiler thine?"

    The Christianity of America is a Christianity, of
    whose votaries it may be as truly said, as it was of
    the ancient scribes and Pharisees, "They bind heavy
    burdens, and grievous to be borne, and lay them on
    men's shoulders, but they themselves will not move
    them with one of their fingers. All their works they
    do for to be seen of men.--They love the upper-
    most rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the syna-
    gogues, . . . . . . and to be called of men, Rabbi,
    Rabbi.--But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees,
    hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven
    against men; for ye neither go in yourselves, neither
    suffer ye them that are entering to go in. Ye devour
    widows' houses, and for a pretence make long
    prayers; therefore ye shall receive the greater dam-
    nation. Ye compass sea and land to make one prose-
    lyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold
    more the child of hell than yourselves.--Woe unto
    you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay
    tithe of mint, and anise, and cumin, and have omit-
    ted the weightier matters of the law, judgment,
    mercy, and faith; these ought ye to have done, and
    not to leave the other undone. Ye blind guides!
    which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. Woe
    unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye
    make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter;
    but within, they are full of extortion and excess.--
    Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for
    ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed ap-
    pear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead
    men's bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also
    outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within
    ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity."

    Dark and terrible as is this picture, I hold it to be
    strictly true of the overwhelming mass of professed
    Christians in America. They strain at a gnat, and
    swallow a camel. Could any thing be more true of
    our churches? They would be shocked at the propo-
    sition of fellowshipping a SHEEP-stealer; and at the
    same time they hug to their communion a MAN-
    stealer, and brand me with being an infidel, if I
    find fault with them for it. They attend with Phari-
    saical strictness to the outward forms of religion, and
    at the same time neglect the weightier matters of
    the law, judgment, mercy, and faith. They are al-
    ways ready to sacrifice, but seldom to show mercy.
    They are they who are represented as professing to
    love God whom they have not seen, whilst they hate
    their brother whom they have seen. They love the
    heathen on the other side of the globe. They can
    pray for him, pay money to have the Bible put into
    his hand, and missionaries to instruct him; while
    they despise and totally neglect the heathen at their
    own doors.

    Such is, very briefly, my view of the religion of
    this land; and to avoid any misunderstanding, grow-
    ing out of the use of general terms, I mean by the
    religion of this land, that which is revealed in the
    words, deeds, and actions, of those bodies, north and
    south, calling themselves Christian churches, and yet
    in union with slaveholders. It is against religion, as
    presented by these bodies, that I have felt it my
    duty to testify.

    I conclude these remarks by copying the following
    portrait of the religion of the south, (which is, by
    communion and fellowship, the religion of the
    north,) which I soberly affirm is "true to the life,"
    and without caricature or the slightest exaggeration.
    It is said to have been drawn, several years before
    the present anti-slavery agitation began, by a north-
    ern Methodist preacher, who, while residing at the
    south, had an opportunity to see slaveholding mor-
    als, manners, and piety, with his own eyes. "Shall
    I not visit for these things? saith the Lord. Shall not
    my soul be avenged on such a nation as this?"


    "Come, saints and sinners, hear me tell
    How pious priests whip Jack and Nell,
    And women buy and children sell,
    And preach all sinners down to hell,
    And sing of heavenly union.
    "They'll bleat and baa, dona like goats,
    Gorge down black sheep, and strain at motes,
    Array their backs in fine black coats,
    Then seize their negroes by their throats,
    And choke, for heavenly union.

    "They'll church you if you sip a dram,
    And damn you if you steal a lamb;
    Yet rob old Tony, Doll, and Sam,
    Of human rights, and bread and ham;
    Kidnapper's heavenly union.

    "They'll loudly talk of Christ's reward,
    And bind his image with a cord,
    And scold, and swing the lash abhorred,
    And sell their brother in the Lord
    To handcuffed heavenly union.

    "They'll read and sing a sacred song,
    And make a prayer both loud and long,
    And teach the right and do the wrong,
    Hailing the brother, sister throng,
    With words of heavenly union.

    "We wonder how such saints can sing,
    Or praise the Lord upon the wing,
    Who roar, and scold, and whip, and sting,
    And to their slaves and mammon cling,
    In guilty conscience union.

    "They'll raise tobacco, corn, and rye,
    And drive, and thieve, and cheat, and lie,
    And lay up treasures in the sky,
    By making switch and cowskin fly,
    In hope of heavenly union.
    "They'll crack old Tony on the skull,
    And preach and roar like Bashan bull,
    Or braying ass, of mischief full,
    Then seize old Jacob by the wool,
    And pull for heavenly union.

    "A roaring, ranting, sleek man-thief,
    Who lived on mutton, veal, and beef,
    Yet never would afford relief
    To needy, sable sons of grief,
    Was big with heavenly union.

    "'Love not the world,' the preacher said,
    And winked his eye, and shook his head;
    He seized on Tom, and Dick, and Ned,
    Cut short their meat, and clothes, and bread,
    Yet still loved heavenly union.

    "Another preacher whining spoke
    Of One whose heart for sinners broke:
    He tied old Nanny to an oak,
    And drew the blood at every stroke,
    And prayed for heavenly union.

    "Two others oped their iron jaws,
    And waved their children-stealing paws;
    There sat their children in gewgaws;
    By stinting negroes' backs and maws,
    They kept up heavenly union.

    "All good from Jack another takes,
    And entertains their flirts and rakes,
    Who dress as sleek as glossy snakes,
    And cram their mouths with sweetened cakes;
    And this goes down for union."

    Sincerely and earnestly hoping that this little book
    may do something toward throwing light on the
    American slave system, and hastening the glad day
    of deliverance to the millions of my brethren in
    bonds--faithfully relying upon the power of truth,
    love, and justice, for success in my humble efforts
    --and solemnly pledging my self anew to the sacred
    cause,--I subscribe myself,

    LYNN, ~Mass., April~ 28, 1845.

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