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    Chapter 67

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    Chapter 68
    Previous Chapter
    First catch your Boer, then kick him.
    --Pudd'nhead Wilson's New Calendar.

    Those latter days were days of bitter worry and trouble for the harassed
    Reformers.

    From Mrs. Hammond we learn that on the 31st (the day after Johannesburg
    heard of the invasion), "The Reform Committee repudiates Dr. Jameson's
    inroad."

    It also publishes its intention to adhere to the Manifesto.

    It also earnestly desires that the inhabitants shall refrain from overt
    acts against the Boer government.

    It also "distributes arms" at the Court House, and furnishes horses "to
    the newly-enrolled volunteers."

    It also brings a Transvaal flag into the committee-room, and the entire
    body swear allegiance to it "with uncovered heads and upraised arms."

    Also "one thousand Lee-Metford rifles have been given out"--to rebels.

    Also, in a speech, Reformer Lionel Phillips informs the public that the
    Reform Committee Delegation has "been received with courtesy by the
    Government Commission," and "been assured that their proposals shall be
    earnestly considered." That "while the Reform Committee regretted
    Jameson's precipitate action, they would stand by him."

    Also the populace are in a state of "wild enthusiasm," and "46 can
    scarcely be restrained; they want to go out to meet Jameson and bring him
    in with triumphal outcry."

    Also the British High Commissioner has issued a damnifying proclamation
    against Jameson and all British abettors of his game. It arrives January
    1st.

    It is a difficult position for the Reformers, and full of hindrances and
    perplexities. Their duty is hard, but plain:

    1. They have to repudiate the inroad, and stand by the inroader.

    2. They have to swear allegiance to the Boer government, and distribute
    cavalry horses to the rebels.

    3. They have to forbid overt acts against the Boer government, and
    distribute arms to its enemies.

    4. They have to avoid collision with the British government, but still
    stand by Jameson and their new oath of allegiance to the Boer government,
    taken, uncovered, in presence of its flag.

    They did such of these things as they could; they tried to do them all;
    in fact, did do them all, but only in turn, not simultaneously. In the
    nature of things they could not be made to simultane.

    In preparing for armed revolution and in talking revolution, were the
    Reformers "bluffing," or were they in earnest? If they were in earnest,
    they were taking great risks--as has been already pointed out. A
    gentleman of high position told me in Johannesburg that he had in his
    possession a printed document proclaiming a new government and naming its
    president--one of the Reform leaders. He said that this proclamation had
    been ready for issue, but was suppressed when the raid collapsed.
    Perhaps I misunderstood him. Indeed, I must have misunderstood him, for
    I have not seen mention of this large incident in print anywhere.

    Besides, I hope I am mistaken; for, if I am, then there is argument that
    the Reformers were privately not serious, but were only trying to scare
    the Boer government into granting the desired reforms.

    The Boer government was scared, and it had a right to be. For if Mr.
    Rhodes's plan was to provoke a collision that would compel the
    interference of England, that was a serious matter. If it could be shown
    that that was also the Reformers' plan and purpose, it would prove that
    they had marked out a feasible project, at any rate, although it was one
    which could hardly fail to cost them ruinously before England should
    arrive. But it seems clear that they had no such plan nor desire. If,
    when the worst should come to the worst, they meant to overthrow the
    government, they also meant to inherit the assets themselves, no doubt.

    This scheme could hardly have succeeded. With an army of Boers at their
    gates and 50,000 riotous blacks in their midst, the odds against success
    would have been too heavy--even if the whole town had been armed. With
    only 2,500 rifles in the place, they stood really no chance.

    To me, the military problems of the situation are of more interest than
    the political ones, because by disposition I have always been especially
    fond of war. No, I mean fond of discussing war; and fond of giving
    military advice. If I had been with Jameson the morning after he
    started, I should have advised him to turn back. That was Monday; it was
    then that he received his first warning from a Boer source not to violate
    the friendly soil of the Transvaal. It showed that his invasion was
    known. If I had been with him on Tuesday morning and afternoon, when he
    received further warnings, I should have repeated my advice. If I had
    been with him the next morning--New Year's--when he received notice that
    "a few hundred" Boers were waiting for him a few miles ahead, I should
    not have advised, but commanded him to go back. And if I had been with
    him two or three hours later--a thing not conceivable to me--I should
    have retired him by force; for at that time he learned that the few
    hundred had now grown to 800; and that meant that the growing would go on
    growing.

    For,--by authority of Mr. Garrett, one knows that Jameson's 600 were only
    530 at most, when you count out his native drivers, etc.; and that the
    530 consisted largely of "green" youths, "raw young fellows," not trained
    and war-worn British soldiers; and I would have told. Jameson that those
    lads would not be able to shoot effectively from horseback in the scamper
    and racket of battle, and that there would not be anything for them to
    shoot at, anyway, but rocks; for the Boers would be behind the rocks, not
    out in the open. I would have told him that 300 Boer sharpshooters
    behind rocks would be an overmatch for his 500 raw young fellows on
    horseback.

    If pluck were the only thing essential to battle-winning, the English
    would lose no battles. But discretion, as well as pluck, is required
    when one fights Boers and Red Indians. In South Africa the Briton has
    always insisted upon standing bravely up, unsheltered, before the hidden
    Boer, and taking the results: Jameson's men would follow the custom.
    Jameson would not have listened to me--he would have been intent upon
    repeating history, according to precedent. Americans are not acquainted
    with the British-Boer war of 1881; but its history is interesting, and
    could have been instructive to Jameson if he had been receptive. I will
    cull some details of it from trustworthy sources mainly from "Russell's
    Natal." Mr. Russell is not a Boer, but a Briton. He is inspector of
    schools, and his history is a text-book whose purpose is the instruction
    of the Natal English youth.

    After the seizure of the Transvaal and the suppression of the Boer
    government by England in 1877, the Boers fretted for three years, and
    made several appeals to England for a restoration of their liberties,
    but without result. Then they gathered themselves together in a great
    mass-meeting at Krugersdorp, talked their troubles over, and resolved to
    fight for their deliverance from the British yoke. (Krugersdorp--the
    place where the Boers interrupted the Jameson raid.) The little handful
    of farmers rose against the strongest empire in the world. They
    proclaimed martial law and the re-establishment of their Republic. They
    organized their forces and sent them forward to intercept the British
    battalions. This, although Sir Garnet Wolseley had but lately made
    proclamation that "so long as the sun shone in the heavens," the
    Transvaal would be and remain English territory. And also in spite of
    the fact that the commander of the 94th regiment--already on the march to
    suppress this rebellion--had been heard to say that "the Boers would turn
    tail at the first beat of the big drum."--["South Africa As It Is,"
    by F. Reginald Statham, page 82. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1897.]

    Four days after the flag-raising, the Boer force which had been sent
    forward to forbid the invasion of the English troops met them at
    Bronkhorst Spruit--246 men of the 94th regiment, in command of a colonel,
    the big drum beating, the band playing--and the first battle was fought.
    It lasted ten minutes. Result:

    British loss, more than 150 officers and men, out of the 246.
    Surrender of the remnant.

    Boer loss--if any--not stated.

    They are fine marksmen, the Boers. From the cradle up, they live on
    horseback and hunt wild animals with the rifle. They have a passion for
    liberty and the Bible, and care for nothing else.

    "General Sir George Colley, Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief in
    Natal, felt it his duty to proceed at once to the relief of the loyalists
    and soldiers beleaguered in the different towns of the Transvaal." He
    moved out with 1,000 men and some artillery. He found the Boers encamped
    in a strong and sheltered position on high ground at Laing's Nek--every
    Boer behind a rock. Early in the morning of the 28th January, 1881, he
    moved to the attack "with the 58th regiment, commanded by Colonel Deane,
    a mounted squadron of 70 men, the 60th Rifles, the Naval Brigade with
    three rocket tubes, and the Artillery with six guns." He shelled the
    Boers for twenty minutes, then the assault was delivered, the 58th
    marching up the slope in solid column. The battle was soon finished,
    with this result, according to Russell--

    British loss in killed and wounded, 174.

    Boer loss, "trifling."

    Colonel Deane was killed, and apparently every officer above the grade of
    lieutenant was killed or wounded, for the 58th retreated to its camp in
    command of a lieutenant. ("Africa as It Is.")

    That ended the second battle.

    On the 7th of February General Colley discovered that the Boers were
    flanking his position. The next morning he left his camp at Mount
    Pleasant and marched out and crossed the Ingogo river with 270 men,
    started up the Ingogo heights, and there fought a battle which lasted
    from noon till nightfall. He then retreated, leaving his wounded with
    his military chaplain, and in recrossing the now swollen river lost some
    of his men by drowning. That was the third Boer victory. Result,
    according to Mr. Russell--

    British loss 150 out of 270 engaged.

    Boer loss, 8 killed, 9 wounded--17.

    There was a season of quiet, now, but at the end of about three weeks Sir
    George Colley conceived the idea of climbing, with an infantry and
    artillery force, the steep and rugged mountain of Amajuba in the night--a
    bitter hard task, but he accomplished it. On the way he left about 200
    men to guard a strategic point, and took about 400 up the mountain with
    him. When the sun rose in the morning, there was an unpleasant surprise
    for the Boers; yonder were the English troops visible on top of the
    mountain two or three miles away, and now their own position was at the
    mercy of the English artillery. The Boer chief resolved to retreat--up
    that mountain. He asked for volunteers, and got them.

    The storming party crossed the swale and began to creep up the steeps,
    "and from behind rocks and bushes they shot at the soldiers on the
    skyline as if they were stalking deer," says Mr. Russell. There was
    "continuous musketry fire, steady and fatal on the one side, wild and
    ineffectual on the other." The Boers reached the top, and began to put in
    their ruinous work. Presently the British "broke and fled for their
    lives down the rugged steep." The Boers had won the battle. Result in
    killed and wounded, including among the killed the British General:

    British loss, 226, out of 400 engaged.

    Boer loss, 1 killed, 5 wounded.

    That ended the war. England listened to reason, and recognized the Boer
    Republic--a government which has never been in any really awful danger
    since, until Jameson started after it with his 500 "raw young fellows."
    To recapitulate:

    The Boer farmers and British soldiers fought 4 battles, and the Boers won
    them all. Result of the 4, in killed and wounded:

    British loss, 700 men.

    Boer loss, so far as known, 23 men.

    It is interesting, now, to note how loyally Jameson and his several
    trained British military officers tried to make their battles conform to
    precedent. Mr. Garrett's account of the Raid is much the best one I have
    met with, and my impressions of the Raid are drawn from that.

    When Jameson learned that near Krugersdorp he would find 800 Boers
    waiting to dispute his passage, he was not in the least disturbed. He
    was feeling as he had felt two or three days before, when he had opened
    his campaign with a historic remark to the same purport as the one with
    which the commander of the 94th had opened the Boer-British war of
    fourteen years before. That Commander's remark was, that the Boers
    "would turn tail at the first beat of the big drum." Jameson's was, that
    with his "raw young fellows" he could kick the (persons) of the Boers
    "all round the Transvaal." He was keeping close to historic precedent.

    Jameson arrived in the presence of the Boers. They--according to
    precedent--were not visible. It was a country of ridges, depressions,
    rocks, ditches, moraines of mining-tailings--not even as favorable for
    cavalry work as Laing's Nek had been in the former disastrous days.
    Jameson shot at the ridges and rocks with his artillery, just as General
    Colley had done at the Nek; and did them no damage and persuaded no Boer
    to show himself. Then about a hundred of his men formed up to charge the
    ridge-according to the 58th's precedent at the Nek; but as they dashed
    forward they opened out in a long line, which was a considerable
    improvement on the 58th's tactics; when they had gotten to within 200
    yards of the ridge the concealed Boers opened out on them and emptied 20
    saddles. The unwounded dismounted and fired at the rocks over the backs
    of their horses; but the return-fire was too hot, and they mounted again,
    "and galloped back or crawled away into a clump of reeds for cover, where
    they were shortly afterward taken prisoners as they lay among the reeds.
    Some thirty prisoners were so taken, and during the night which followed
    the Boers carried away another thirty killed and wounded--the wounded to
    Krugersdorp hospital." Sixty per cent. of the assaulted force disposed
    of--according to Mr. Garrett's estimate.

    It was according to Amajuba precedent, where the British loss was 226 out
    of about 400 engaged.

    Also, in Jameson's camp, that night, "there lay about 30 wounded or
    otherwise disabled" men. Also during the night "some 30 or 40 young
    fellows got separated from the command and straggled through into
    Johannesburg." Altogether a possible 150 men gone, out of his 530. His
    lads had fought valorously, but had not been able to get near enough to a
    Boer to kick him around the Transvaal.

    At dawn the next morning the column of something short of 400 whites
    resumed its march. Jameson's grit was stubbornly good; indeed, it was
    always that. He still had hopes. There was a long and tedious
    zigzagging march through broken ground, with constant harassment from the
    Boers; and at last the column "walked into a sort of trap," and the Boers
    "closed in upon it." "Men and horses dropped on all sides. In the
    column the feeling grew that unless it could burst through the Boer lines
    at this point it was done for. The Maxims were fired until they grew too
    hot, and, water failing for the cool jacket, five of them jammed and went
    out of action. The 7-pounder was fired until only half an hour's
    ammunition was left to fire with. One last rush was made, and failed,
    and then the Staats Artillery came up on the left flank, and the game was
    up."

    Jameson hoisted a white flag and surrendered.

    There is a story, which may not be true, about an ignorant Boer farmer
    there who thought that this white flag was the national flag of England.
    He had been at Bronkhorst, and Laing's Nek, and Ingogo and Amajuba, and
    supposed that the English did not run up their flag excepting at the end
    of a fight.

    The following is (as I understand it) Mr. Garrett's estimate of Jameson's
    total loss in killed and wounded for the two days:

    "When they gave in they were minus some 20 per cent. of combatants.
    There were 76 casualties. There were 30 men hurt or sick in the wagons.
    There were 27 killed on the spot or mortally wounded."

    Total, 133, out of the original 530. It is just 25 per cent.--[However,
    I judge that the total was really 150; for the number of wounded carried
    to Krugersdorp hospital was 53; not 30, as Mr. Garrett reports it. The
    lady whose guest I was in Krugerdorp gave me the figures. She was head
    nurse from the beginning of hostilities (Jan. 1) until the professional
    nurses arrived, Jan. 8th. Of the 53, "Three or four were Boers"; I quote
    her words.]--This is a large improvement upon the precedents established
    at Bronkhorst, Laing's Nek, Ingogo, and Amajuba, and seems to indicate
    that Boer marksmanship is not so good now as it was in those days. But
    there is one detail in which the Raid-episode exactly repeats history.
    By surrender at Bronkhorst, the whole British force disappeared from the
    theater of war; this was the case with Jameson's force.

    In the Boer loss, also, historical precedent is followed with sufficient
    fidelity. In the 4 battles named above, the Boer loss, so far as known,
    was an average of 6 men per battle, to the British average loss of 175.
    In Jameson's battles, as per Boer official report, the Boer loss in
    killed was 4. Two of these were killed by the Boers themselves, by
    accident, the other by Jameson's army--one of them intentionally, the
    other by a pathetic mischance. "A young Boer named Jacobz was moving
    forward to give a drink to one of the wounded troopers (Jameson's) after
    the first charge, when another wounded man, mistaking his intention; shot
    him." There were three or four wounded Boers in the Krugersdorp
    hospital, and apparently no others have been reported. Mr. Garrett, "on
    a balance of probabilities, fully accepts the official version, and
    thanks Heaven the killed was not larger."

    As a military man, I wish to point out what seems to me to be military
    errors in the conduct of the campaign which we have just been
    considering. I have seen active service in the field, and it was in the
    actualities of war that I acquired my training and my right to speak.
    I served two weeks in the beginning of our Civil War, and during all that
    time commanded a battery of infantry composed of twelve men. General
    Grant knew the history of my campaign, for I told it him. I also told
    him the principle upon which I had conducted it; which was, to tire the
    enemy. I tired out and disqualified many battalions, yet never had a
    casualty myself nor lost a man. General Grant was not given to paying
    compliments, yet he said frankly that if I had conducted the whole war
    much bloodshed would have been spared, and that what the army might have
    lost through the inspiriting results of collision in the field would have
    been amply made up by the liberalizing influences of travel. Further
    endorsement does not seem to me to be necessary.

    Let us now examine history, and see what it teaches. In the 4 battles
    fought in 1881 and the two fought by Jameson, the British loss in killed,
    wounded, and prisoners, was substantially 1,300 men; the Boer loss, as
    far as is ascertainable, eras about 30 men. These figures show that
    there was a defect somewhere. It was not in the absence of courage. I
    think it lay in the absence of discretion. The Briton should have done
    one thing or the other: discarded British methods and fought the Boer
    with Boer methods, or augmented his own force until--using British
    methods--it should be large enough to equalize results with the Boer.

    To retain the British method requires certain things, determinable by
    arithmetic. If, for argument's sake, we allow that the aggregate of
    1,716 British soldiers engaged in the 4 early battles was opposed by the
    same aggregate of Boers, we have this result: the British loss of 700 and
    the Boer loss of 23 argues that in order to equalize results in future
    battles you must make the British force thirty times as strong as the
    Boer force. Mr. Garrett shows that the Boer force immediately opposed to
    Jameson was 2,000, and that there were 6,000 more on hand by the evening
    of the second day. Arithmetic shows that in order to make himself the
    equal of the 8,000 Boers, Jameson should have had 240,000 men, whereas he
    merely had 530 boys. From a military point of view, backed by the facts
    of history, I conceive that Jameson's military judgment was at fault.

    Another thing.--Jameson was encumbered by artillery, ammunition, and
    rifles. The facts of the battle show that he should have had none of
    those things along. They were heavy, they were in his way, they impeded
    his march. There was nothing to shoot at but rocks--he knew quite well
    that there would be nothing to shoot at but rocks--and he knew that
    artillery and rifles have no effect upon rocks. He was badly overloaded
    with unessentials. He had 8 Maxims--a Maxim is a kind of Gatling, I
    believe, and shoots about 500 bullets per minute; he had one
    12 1/2-pounder cannon and two 7-pounders; also, 145,000 rounds of
    ammunition. He worked the Maxims so hard upon the rocks that five of them
    became disabled--five of the Maxims, not the rocks. It is believed that
    upwards of 100,000 rounds of ammunition of the various kinds were fired
    during the 21 hours that the battles lasted. One man killed. He must
    have been much mutilated. It was a pity to bring those futile Maxims
    along. Jameson should have furnished himself with a battery of Pudd'nhead
    Wilson maxims instead, They are much more deadly than those others, and
    they are easily carried, because they have no weight.

    Mr. Garrett--not very carefully concealing a smile--excuses the presence
    of the Maxims by saying that they were of very substantial use because
    their sputtering disordered the aim of the Boers, and in that way saved
    lives.

    Three cannon, eight Maxims, and five hundred rifles yielded a result
    which emphasized a fact which had already been established--that the
    British system of standing out in the open to fight Boers who are behind
    rocks is not wise, not excusable, and ought to be abandoned for something
    more efficacious. For the purpose of war is to kill, not merely to waste
    ammunition.

    If I could get the management of one of those campaigns, I would know
    what to do, for I have studied the Boer. He values the Bible above every
    other thing. The most delicious edible in South Africa is "biltong."
    You will have seen it mentioned in Olive Schreiner's books. It is what
    our plainsmen call "jerked beef." It is the Boer's main standby. He has
    a passion for it, and he is right.

    If I had the command of the campaign I would go with rifles only, no
    cumbersome Maxims and cannon to spoil good rocks with. I would move
    surreptitiously by night to a point about a quarter of a mile from the
    Boer camp, and there I would build up a pyramid of biltong and Bibles
    fifty feet high, and then conceal my men all about. In the morning the
    Boers would send out spies, and then the rest would come with a rush.
    I would surround them, and they would have to fight my men on equal
    terms, in the open. There wouldn't be any Amajuba results.

    --[Just as I am finishing this book an unfortunate dispute has sprung up
    between Dr. Jameson and his officers, on the one hand, and Colonel Rhodes
    on the other, concerning the wording of a note which Colonel Rhodes sent
    from Johannesburg by a cyclist to Jameson just before hostilities began
    on the memorable New Year's Day. Some of the fragments of this note were
    found on the battlefield after the fight, and these have been pieced
    together; the dispute is as to what words the lacking fragments
    contained. Jameson says the note promised him a reinforcement of 300 men
    from Johannesburg. Colonel Rhodes denies this, and says he merely
    promised to send out "some" men "to meet you."]

    [It seems a pity that these friends should fall out over so little a
    thing. If the 300 had been sent, what good would it have done? In 21
    hours of industrious fighting, Jameson's 530 men, with 8 Maxims, 3
    cannon, and 145,000 rounds of ammunition, killed an aggregate of 1.
    Boer. These statistics show that a reinforcement of 300 Johannesburgers,
    armed merely with muskets, would have killed, at the outside, only a
    little over a half of another Boer. This would not have saved the day.
    It would not even have seriously affected the general result. The
    figures show clearly, and with mathematical violence, that the only way
    to save Jameson, or even give him a fair and equal chance with the enemy,
    was for Johannesburg to send him 240 Maxims, 90 cannon, 600 carloads of
    ammunition, and 240,000 men. Johannesburg was not in a position to do
    this. Johannesburg has been called very hard names for not reinforcing
    Jameson. But in every instance this has been done by two classes of
    persons--people who do not read history, and people, like Jameson, who do
    not understand what it means, after they have read it.]
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