Meet us on:
 
Entire Site
    Try our fun game

    Dueling book covers…may the best design win!

    Random Quote
    "Any great truth can -- and eventually will -- be expressed as a cliche -- a cliche is a sure and certain way to dilute an idea. For instance, my grandmother used to say, 'The black cat is always the last one off the fence.' I have no idea what she meant, but at one time, it was undoubtedly true."
     

    Subscribe to Our Newsletter

    Follow us on Twitter

    Never miss a good book again! Follow Read Print on Twitter

    Chapter 8

    • Rate it:
    Launch Reading Mode Next Chapter
    Chapter 9
    Previous Chapter
    NOTE ON MOROCCAN ARCHITECTURE

    I

    M. H. Saladin, whose "Manual of Moslem Architecture" was published in
    1907, ends his chapter on Morocco with the words: "It is especially
    urgent that we should know, and penetrate into, Morocco as soon as
    possible, in order to study its monuments. It is the only country but
    Persia where Moslem art actually survives; and the tradition handed down
    to the present day will doubtless clear up many things."

    M. Saladin's wish has been partly realized. Much has been done since
    1912, when General Lyautey was appointed Resident-General, to clear up
    and classify the history of Moroccan art; but since 1914, though the
    work has never been dropped, it has necessarily been much delayed,
    especially as regards its published record; and as yet only a few
    monographs and articles have summed up some of the interesting
    investigations of the last five years.

    II

    When I was in Marrakech word was sent to Captain de S., who was with me,
    that a Caïd of the Atlas, whose prisoner he had been several years
    before, had himself been taken by the Pasha's troops, and was in
    Marrakech. Captain de S. was asked to identify several rifles which his
    old enemy had taken from him, and on receiving them found that, in the
    interval, they had been elaborately ornamented with the Arab niello work
    of which the tradition goes back to Damascus.

    This little incident is a good example of the degree to which the
    mediaeval tradition alluded to by M. Saladin has survived in Moroccan
    life. Nowhere else in the world, except among the moribund
    fresco-painters of the Greek monasteries, has a formula of art persisted
    from the seventh or eighth century to the present day; and in Morocco
    the formula is not the mechanical expression of a petrified theology but
    the setting of the life of a people who have gone on wearing the same
    clothes, observing the same customs, believing in the same fetiches, and
    using the same saddles, ploughs, looms, and dye-stuffs as in the days
    when the foundations of the first mosque of El Kairouiyin were laid.

    The origin of this tradition is confused and obscure. The Arabs have
    never been creative artists, nor are the Berbers known to have been so.
    As investigations proceed in Syria and Mesopotamia it seems more and
    more probable that the sources of inspiration of pre-Moslem art in North
    Africa are to be found in Egypt, Persia, and India. Each new
    investigation pushes these sources farther back and farther east; but it
    is not of much use to retrace these ancient vestiges, since Moroccan art
    has, so far, nothing to show of pre-Islamite art, save what is purely
    Phenician or Roman.

    In any case, however, it is not in Morocco that the clue to Moroccan art
    is to be sought; though interesting hints and mysterious reminiscences
    will doubtless be found in such places as Tinmel, in the gorges of the
    Atlas, where a ruined mosque of the earliest Almohad period has been
    photographed by M. Doutté, and in the curious Algerian towns of Sedrata
    and the Kalaa of the Beni Hammads. Both of these latter towns were rich
    and prosperous communities in the tenth century and both were destroyed
    in the eleventh, so that they survive as mediaeval Pompeiis of a quite
    exceptional interest, since their architecture appears to have been
    almost unaffected by classic or Byzantine influences.

    Traces of a very old indigenous art are found in the designs on the
    modern white and black Berber pottery, but this work, specimens of which
    are to be seen in the Oriental Department of the Louvre, seems to go
    back, by way of Central America, Greece (sixth century B.C.) and Susa
    (twelfth century B.C.), to the far-off period before the streams of
    human invention had divided, and when the same loops and ripples and
    spirals formed on the flowing surface of every current.

    It is a disputed question whether Spanish influence was foremost in
    developing the peculiarly Moroccan art of the earliest Moslem period, or
    whether European influences came by way of Syria and Palestine, and
    afterward met and were crossed with those of Moorish Spain. Probably
    both things happened, since the Almoravids were in Spain; and no doubt
    the currents met and mingled. At any rate, Byzantine, Greece, and the
    Palestine and Syria of the Crusaders, contributed as much as Rome and
    Greece to the formation of that peculiar Moslem art which, all the way
    from India to the Pillars of Hercules, built itself, with minor
    variations, out of the same elements.

    Arab conquerors always destroy as much as they can of the work of their
    predecessors, and nothing remains, as far as is known, of Almoravid
    architecture in Morocco. But the great Almohad Sultans covered Spain and
    Northwest Africa with their monuments, and no later buildings in Africa
    equal them in strength and majesty.

    It is no doubt because the Almohads built in stone that so much of what
    they made survives. The Merinids took to rubble and a soft tufa, and the
    Cherifian dynasties built in clay like the Spaniards in South America.
    And so seventeenth century Meknez has perished while the Almohad walls
    and towers of the tenth century still stand.

    The principal old buildings of Morocco are defensive and religious--and
    under the latter term the beautiful collegiate houses (the medersas) of
    Fez and Salé may fairly be included, since the educational system of
    Islam is essentially and fundamentally theological. Of old secular
    buildings, palaces or private houses, virtually none are known to exist;
    but their plan and decorations may easily be reconstituted from the
    early chronicles, and also from the surviving palaces built in the
    eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and even those which the wealthy
    nobles of modern Morocco are building to this day.

    The whole of civilian Moslem architecture from Persia to Morocco is
    based on four unchanging conditions: a hot climate, slavery, polygamy
    and the segregation of women. The private house in Mahometan countries
    is in fact a fortress, a convent and a temple: a temple of which the god
    (as in all ancient religions) frequently descends to visit his
    cloistered votaresses. For where slavery and polygamy exist every
    house-master is necessarily a god, and the house he inhabits a shrine
    built about his divinity.

    The first thought of the Moroccan chieftain was always defensive. As
    soon as he pitched a camp or founded a city it had to be guarded
    against the hungry hordes who encompassed him on every side. Each little
    centre of culture and luxury in Moghreb was an islet in a sea of
    perpetual storms. The wonder is that, thus incessantly threatened from
    without and conspired against from within--with the desert at their
    doors, and their slaves on the threshold--these violent men managed to
    create about them an atmosphere of luxury and stability that astonished
    not only the obsequious native chronicler but travellers and captives
    from western Europe.

    The truth is, as has been often pointed out, that, even until the end of
    the seventeenth century, the refinements of civilization were in many
    respects no greater in France and England than in North Africa. North
    Africa had long been in more direct communication with the old Empires
    of immemorial luxury, and was therefore farther advanced in the arts of
    living than the Spain and France of the Dark Ages; and this is why, in a
    country that to the average modern European seems as savage as Ashantee,
    one finds traces of a refinement of life and taste hardly to be matched
    by Carlovingian and early Capetian Europe.

    III

    The brief Almoravid dynasty left no monuments behind it.

    Fez had already been founded by the Idrissites, and its first mosques
    (Kairouiyin and Les Andalous) existed. Of the Almoravid Fez and
    Marrakech the chroniclers relate great things; but the wild Hilalian
    invasion and the subsequent descent of the Almohads from the High Atlas
    swept away whatever the first dynasties had created.

    The Almohads were mighty builders, and their great monuments are all of
    stone. The earliest known example of their architecture which has
    survived is the ruined mosque of Tinmel, in the High Atlas, discovered
    and photographed by M. Doutté. This mosque was built by the inspired
    mystic, Ibn-Toumert, who founded the line. Following him came the great
    palace-making Sultans whose walled cities of splendid mosques and towers
    have Romanesque qualities of mass and proportion, and, as M. Raymond
    Koechlin has pointed out, inevitably recall the "robust simplicity of
    the master builders who at the very same moment were beginning in
    France the construction of the first Gothic cathedrals and the noblest
    feudal castles."

    In the thirteenth century, with the coming of the Merinids, Moroccan
    architecture grew more delicate, more luxurious, and perhaps also more
    peculiarly itself. That interaction of Spanish and Arab art which
    produced the style known as Moorish reached, on the African side of the
    Straits, its greatest completeness in Morocco. It was under the Merinids
    that Moorish art grew into full beauty in Spain, and under the Merinids
    that Fez rebuilt the mosque Kairouiyin and that of the Andalusians, and
    created six of its nine _Medersas_, the most perfect surviving buildings
    of that unique moment of sober elegance and dignity.

    The Cherifian dynasties brought with them a decline in taste. A crude
    desire for immediate effect, and the tendency toward a more barbaric
    luxury, resulted in the piling up of frail palaces as impermanent as
    tents. Yet a last flower grew from the deformed and dying trunk of the
    old Empire. The Saadian Sultan who invaded the Soudan and came back
    laden with gold and treasure from the great black city of Timbuctoo
    covered Marrakech with hasty monuments of which hardly a trace survives.
    But there, in a nettle-grown corner of a ruinous quarter, lay hidden
    till yesterday the Chapel of the Tombs: the last emanation of pure
    beauty of a mysterious, incomplete, forever retrogressive and yet
    forever forward-straining people. The Merinid tombs of Fez have fallen;
    but those of their destroyers linger on in precarious grace, like a
    flower on the edge of a precipice.

    IV

    Moroccan architecture, then, is easily divided into four groups: the
    fortress, the mosque, the collegiate building and the private house.

    The kernel of the mosque is always the _mihrab_, or niche facing toward
    the Kasbah of Mecca, where the _imam_[A] stands to say the prayer. This
    arrangement, which enabled as many as possible of the faithful to kneel
    facing the _mihrab_, results in a ground-plan necessarily consisting of
    long aisles parallel with the wall of the _mihrab_, to which more and
    more aisles are added as the number of worshippers grows. Where there
    was not space to increase these lateral aisles they were lengthened at
    each end. This typical plan is modified in the Moroccan mosques by a
    wider transverse space, corresponding with the nave of a Christian
    church, and extending across the mosque from the praying niche to the
    principal door. To the right of the _mihrab_ is the _minbar_, the carved
    pulpit (usually of cedar-wood incrusted with mother-of-pearl and ebony)
    from which the Koran is read. In some Algerian and Egyptian mosques (and
    at Cordova, for instance) the _mihrab_ is enclosed in a sort of screen
    called the _maksoura_; but in Morocco this modification of the simpler
    plan was apparently not adopted.

    [Footnote A: The "deacon" or elder of the Moslem religion, which has no
    order of priests.]

    The interior construction of the mosque was no doubt usually affected by
    the nearness of Roman or Byzantine ruins. M. Saladin points out that
    there seem to be few instances of the use of columns made by native
    builders; but it does not therefore follow that all the columns used in
    the early mosques were taken from Roman temples or Christian basilicas.
    The Arab invaders brought their architects and engineers with them; and
    it is very possible that some of the earlier mosques were built by
    prisoners or fortune-hunters from Greece or Italy or Spain.

    At any rate, the column on which the arcades of the vaulting rests in
    the earlier mosques, as at Tunis and Kairouan, and the mosque El
    Kairouiyin at Fez, gives way later to the use of piers, foursquare, or
    with flanking engaged pilasters as at Algiers and Tlemcen. The exterior
    of the mosques, as a rule, is almost entirely hidden by a mushroom
    growth of buildings, lanes and covered bazaars, but where the outer
    walls have remained disengaged they show, as at Kairouan and Cordova,
    great masses of windowless masonry pierced at intervals with majestic
    gateways.

    Beyond the mosque, and opening into it by many wide doors of beaten
    bronze or carved cedar-wood, lies the Court of the Ablutions. The
    openings in the façade were multiplied in order that, on great days, the
    faithful who were not able to enter the mosque might hear the prayers
    and catch a glimpse of the _mihrab_.

    In a corner of the courts stands the minaret. It is the structure on
    which Moslem art has played the greatest number of variations, cutting
    off its angles, building it on a circular or polygonal plan, and
    endlessly modifying the pyramids and pendentives by which the
    ground-plan of one story passes into that of the next. These problems of
    transition, always fascinating to the architect, led in Persia,
    Mesopotamia and Egypt to many different compositions and ways of
    treatment, but in Morocco the minaret, till modern times, remained
    steadfastly square, and proved that no other plan is so beautiful as
    this simplest one of all.

    Surrounding the Court of the Ablutions are the school-rooms, libraries
    and other dependencies, which grew as the Mahometan religion prospered
    and Arab culture developed.

    The medersa was a farther extension of the mosque: it was the academy
    where the Moslem schoolman prepared his theology and the other branches
    of strange learning which, to the present day, make up the curriculum of
    the Mahometan university. The medersa is an adaptation of the private
    house to religious and educational ends; or, if one prefers another
    analogy, it is a _fondak_ built above a miniature mosque. The
    ground-plan is always the same: in the centre an arcaded court with a
    fountain, on one side the long narrow praying-chapel with the _mihrab_,
    on the other a classroom with the same ground-plan, and on the next
    story a series of cell-like rooms for the students, opening on carved
    cedar-wood balconies. This cloistered plan, where all the effect is
    reserved for the interior façades about the court, lends itself to a
    delicacy of detail that would be inappropriate on a street-front; and
    the medersas of Fez are endlessly varied in their fanciful but never
    exuberant decoration.

    M. Tranchant de Lunel has pointed out (in "France-Maroc") with what a
    sure sense of suitability the Merinid architects adapted this decoration
    to the uses of the buildings. On the lower floor, under the cloister, is
    a revêtement of marble (often alabaster) or of the almost indestructible
    ceramic mosaic.[A] On the floor above, massive cedar-wood corbels ending
    in monsters of almost Gothic inspiration support the fretted balconies;
    and above rise stucco interfacings, placed too high up to be injured
    by man, and guarded from the weather by projecting eaves.

    [Footnote A: These Moroccan mosaics are called _zellijes_.]

    The private house, whether merchant's dwelling or chieftain's palace, is
    laid out on the same lines, with the addition of the reserved quarters
    for women; and what remains in Spain and Sicily of Moorish secular
    architecture shows that, in the Merinid period, the play of ornament
    must have been--as was natural--even greater than in the medersas.

    The Arab chroniclers paint pictures of Merinid palaces, such as the
    House of the Favourite at Cordova, which the soberer modern imagination
    refused to accept until the medersas of Fez were revealed, and the old
    decorative tradition was shown in the eighteenth century Moroccan
    palaces. The descriptions given of the palaces of Fez and of Marrakech
    in the preceding articles, which make it unnecessary, in so slight a
    note as this, to go again into the detail of their planning and
    decoration, will serve to show how gracefully the art of the mosque and
    the medersa was lightened and domesticated to suit these cool chambers
    and flower-filled courts.

    With regard to the immense fortifications that are the most picturesque
    and noticeable architectural features of Morocco, the first thing to
    strike the traveller is the difficulty of discerning any difference in
    the probable date of their construction until certain structural
    peculiarities are examined, or the ornamental details of the great
    gateways are noted. Thus the Almohad portions of the walls of Fez and
    Rabat are built of stone, while later parts are of rubble; and the touch
    of European influence in certain gateways of Meknez and Fez at once
    situate them in the seventeenth century. But the mediaeval outline of
    these great piles of masonry, and certain technicalities in their plan,
    such as the disposition of the towers, alternating in the inner and
    outer walls, continued unchanged throughout the different dynasties,
    and this immutability of the Moroccan military architecture enables the
    imagination to picture, not only what was the aspect of the fortified
    cities which the Greeks built in Palestine and Syria, and the
    Crusaders brought back to Europe, but even that of the far-off
    Assyrio-Chaldaean strongholds to which the whole fortified architecture
    of the Middle Ages in Europe seems to lead back.
    Next Chapter
    Chapter 9
    Previous Chapter
    If you're writing a Edith Wharton essay and need some advice, post your Edith Wharton essay question on our Facebook page where fellow bookworms are always glad to help!

    Top 5 Authors

    Top 5 Books

    Book Status
    Finished
    Want to read
    Abandoned

    Are you sure you want to leave this group?