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    Chapter 3

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    Beginning of the greatness of the pontiffs in Italy--Abuse of
    censures and indulgences--The pope applies to Pepin, king of
    France, for assistance--Donation of Pepin to the pontiff--
    Charlemagne--End of the kingdom of the Lombards--The title of
    cardinal begins to be used--The empire passes to the Germans--
    Berengarius, duke of Fruili, created king of Italy--Pisa becomes
    great--Order and division of the states of Italy--Electors of the
    emperor created.

    In these times the popes began to acquire greater temporal authority
    than they had previously possessed; although the immediate successors
    of St. Peter were more reverenced for the holiness of their lives, and
    the miracles which they performed; and their example so greatly
    extended the Christian religion, that princes of other states embraced
    it, in order to obviate the confusion which prevailed at that period.
    The emperor having become a Christian and returned to Constantinople,
    it followed, as was remarked at the commencement of the book, that the
    Roman empire was the more easily ruined, and the church more rapidly
    increased her authority. Nevertheless, the whole of Italy, being
    subject either to the emperors or the kings till the coming of the
    Lombards, the popes never acquired any greater authority than what
    reverence for their habits and doctrine gave them. In other respects
    they obeyed the emperors or kings; officiated for them in their
    affairs, as ministers or agents, and were even sometimes put to death
    by them. He who caused them to become of more importance in the
    affairs of Italy, was Theodoric, king of the Goths, when he
    established the seat of his empire at Ravenna; for, Rome being without
    a prince, the Romans found it necessary, for their safety, to yield
    obedience to the pope; his authority, however, was not greatly
    increased thereby, the only advantage being, that the church of Rome
    was allowed to take precedence of that of Ravenna. But the Lombards
    having taken possession, and Italy being divided into many parts, the
    pope had an opportunity of greater exertion. Being as it were the head
    of Rome, both the emperor of Constantinople and the Lombards respected
    him; so that the Romans, by his means, entered into league with the
    Lombards, and with Longinus, not as subjects, but as equals. Thus the
    popes, at one time friends of the Greeks, and at another of the
    Lombards, increased their own power; but upon the ruin of the eastern
    empire, which occurred during the time of Heraclius, their influence
    was reduced; for the Sclavi, of whom we spoke before, again assailed
    Illyria, and having occupied the country, named it Sclavonia, after
    themselves; and the other parts were attacked by the Persians, then by
    the Saracens under Mohammed, and lastly by the Turks, who took Syria,
    Africa, and Egypt. These causes induced the reigning pope, in his
    distress, to seek new friends, and he applied to the king of France.
    Nearly all the wars which the northern barbarians carried on in Italy,
    it may be here remarked, were occasioned by the pontiffs; and the
    hordes, with which the country was inundated, were generally called in
    by them. The same mode of proceeding still continued, and kept Italy
    weak and unsettled. And, therefore, in relating the events which have
    taken place from those times to the present, the ruin of the empire
    will be no longer illustrated, but only the increase of the
    pontificate and of the other principalities which ruled Italy till the
    coming of Charles VIII. It will be seen how the popes, first with
    censures, and afterward with these and arms, mingled with indulgences,
    became both terrible and venerable; and how, from having abused both,
    they ceased to possess any influence, and were wholly dependent on the
    will of others for assistance in their wars.

    But to return to the order of our narration. Gregory III. occupied the
    papacy, and the kingdom of the Lombards was held by Astolphus, who,
    contrary to agreement, seized Ravenna, and made war upon the pope. On
    this account, Gregory no longer relying upon the emperor of
    Constantinople, since he, for the reasons above given, was unable to
    assist him, and unwilling to trust the Lombards, for they had
    frequently broken their faith, had recourse to Pepin II., who, from
    being lord of Austria and Brabant, had become king of France; not so
    much by his own valor as by that of Charles Martel, his father, and
    Pepin his grandfather; for Charles Martel, being governor of the
    kingdom, effected the memorable defeat of the Saracens near Tours,
    upon the Loire, in which two hundred thousand of them are said to have
    been left dead upon the field of battle. Hence, Pepin, by his father's
    reputation and his own abilities, became afterward king of France. To
    him Pope Gregory, as we have said, applied for assistance against the
    Lombards, which Pepin promised to grant, but desired first to see him
    and be honored with his presence. Gregory accordingly went to France,
    passing uninjured through the country of his enemies, so great was the
    respect they had for religion, and was treated honorably by Pepin, who
    sent an army into Italy, and besieged the Lombards in Pavia. King
    Astolphus, compelled by necessity, made proposals of peace to the
    French, who agreed to them at the entreaty of the pope--for he did not
    desire the death of his enemy, but that he should be converted and
    live. In this treaty, Astolphus promised to give to the church all the
    places he had taken from her; but the king's forces having returned to
    France, he did not fulfill the agreement, and the pope again had
    recourse to Pepin, who sent another army, conquered the Lombards, took
    Ravenna, and, contrary to the wishes of the Greek emperor, gave it to
    the pope, with all the places that belonged to the exarchate, and
    added to them Urbino and the Marca. But Astolphus, while fulfilling
    the terms of his agreement, died, and Desiderius, a Lombard, who was
    duke of Tuscany, took up arms to occupy the kingdom, and demanded
    assistance of the pope, promising him his friendship. The pope
    acceding to his request, the other princes assented. Desiderius kept
    faith at first, and proceeded to resign the districts to the pope,
    according to the agreement made with Pepin, so that an exarch was no
    longer sent from Constantinople to Ravenna, but it was governed
    according to the will of the pope. Pepin soon after died, and was
    succeeded by his son Charles, the same who, on account of the
    magnitude and success of his enterprises, was called Charlemagne, or
    Charles the Great. Theodore I. now succeeded to the papacy, and
    discord arising between him and Desiderius, the latter besieged him in
    Rome. The pope requested assistance of Charles, who, having crossed
    the Alps, besieged Desiderius in Pavai, where he took both him and his
    children, and sent them prisoners to France. He then went to visit the
    pontiff at Rome, where he declared, THAT THE POPE, BEING VICAR OF GOD,
    COULD NOT BE JUDGED BY MEN. The pope and the people of Rome made him
    emperor; and thus Rome began to have an emperor of the west. And
    whereas the popes used to be established by the emperors, the latter
    now began to have need of the popes at their elections; the empire
    continued to lose its powers, while the church acquired them; and, by
    these means, she constantly extended her authority over temporal

    The Lombards, having now been two hundred and thirty-two years in the
    country, were strangers only in name, and Charles, wishing to
    reorganize the states of Italy, consented that they should occupy the
    places in which they had been brought up, and call the province after
    their own name, Lombardy. That they might be led to respect the Roman
    name, he ordered all that part of Italy adjoining to them, which had
    been under the exarchate of Ravenna, to be called Romagna. Besides
    this, he created his son Pepin, king of Italy, whose dominion extended
    to Benevento; all the rest being possessed by the Greek emperor, with
    whom Charles was in league. About this time Pascal I. occupied the
    pontificate, and the priests of the churches of Rome, from being near
    to the pope, and attending the elections of the pontiff, began to
    dignify their own power with a title, by calling themselves cardinals,
    and arrogated so great authority, that having excluded the people of
    Rome from the election of pontiff, the appointment of a new pope was
    scarcely ever made except from one of their own number: thus on the
    death of Pascal, the cardinal of St. Sabina was created pope by the
    title of Eugenius II. Italy having come into the hands of the French,
    a change of form and order took place, the popes acquiring greater
    temporal power, and the new authorities adopting the titles of count
    and marquis, as that of duke had been introduced by Longinus, exarch
    of Ravenna. After the deaths of some pontiffs, Osporco, a Roman,
    succeeded to the papacy; but on account of his unseemly appellation,
    he took the name of Sergius, and this was the origin of that change of
    names which the popes adopt upon their election to the pontificate.

    In the meantime, the Emperor Charles died and was succeeded by Lewis
    (the Pious, after whose death so many disputes arose among his sons,
    that at the time of his grandchildren, the house of France lost the
    empire, which then came to the Germans; the first German emperor being
    called Arnolfus. Nor did the Carlovingian family lose the empire only;
    their discords also occasioned them the loss of Italy; for the
    Lombards, gathering strength, offended the pope and the Romans, and
    Arnolfo, not knowing where to seek relief, was compelled to create
    Berengarius, duke of Fruili, king of Italy. These events induced the
    Huns, who occupied Pannonia, to assail Italy; but, in an engagement
    with Berengarius, they were compelled to return to Pannonia, which had
    from them been named Hungary.

    Romano was at this time emperor of Greece, having, while prefect of
    the army, dethroned Constantine; and as Puglia and Calabria, which, as
    before observed, were parts of the Greek empire, had revolted, he gave
    permission to the Saracans to occupy them; and they having taken
    possession of these provinces, besieged Rome. The Romans, Berengarius
    being then engaged in defending himself against the Huns, appointed
    Alberic, duke of Tuscany, their leader. By his valor Rome was saved
    from the Saracens, who, withdrawing from the siege, erected a fortress
    upon Mount Gargano, by means of which they governed Puglia and
    Calabria, and harassed the whole country. Thus Italy was in those
    times very grievously afflicted, being in constant warfare with the
    Huns in the direction of the Alps, and, on the Neapolitan side,
    suffering from the inroads of the Saracens. This state of things
    continued many years, occupying the reigns of three Berengarii, who
    succeeded each other; and during this time the pope and the church
    were greatly disturbed; the impotence of the eastern, and the disunion
    which prevailed among the western princes, leaving them without
    defense. The city of Genoa, with all her territory upon the rivers,
    having been overrun by the Saracens, an impulse was thus given to the
    rising greatness of Pisa, in which city multitudes took refuge who had
    been driven out of their own country. These events occurred in the
    year 931, when Otho, duke of Saxony, the son of Henry and Matilda, a
    man of great prudence and reputation, being made emperor, the pope
    Agapito, begged that he would come into Italy and relieve him from the
    tyranny of the Berengarii.

    The States of Italy were governed in this manner: Lombardy was under
    Berengarius III. and Alfred his son; Tuscany and Romagna were governed
    by a deputy of the western emperor; Puglia and Calabria were partly
    under the Greek emperor, and partly under the Saracens; in Rome two
    consuls were annually chosen from the nobility, who governed her
    according to ancient custom; to these was added a prefect, who
    dispensed justice among the people; and there was a council of twelve,
    who each year appointed rectors for the places subject to them. The
    popes had more or less authority in Rome and the rest of Italy, in
    proportion as they were favorites of the emperor or of the most
    powerful states. The Emperor Otho came into Italy, took the kingdom
    from the Berengarii, in which they had reigned fifty-five years, and
    reinstated the pontiff in his dignity. He had a son and a nephew, each
    named Otho, who, one after the other, succeeded to the empire. In the
    reign of Otho III., Pope Gregory V. was expelled by the Romans;
    whereupon the emperor came into Italy and replaced him; and the pope,
    to revenge himself on the Romans, took from them the right to create
    an emperor, and gave it to three princes and three bishops of Germany;
    the princes of Brandenburg, Palatine, and Saxony, and the bishops of
    Magonza, Treveri, and Colonia. This occurred in the year 1002. After
    the death of Otho III. the electors created Henry, duke of Bavaria,
    emperor, who at the end of twelve years was crowned by Pope Stephen
    VIII. Henry and his wife Simeonda were persons of very holy life, as
    is seen by the many temples built and endowed by them, of which the
    church of St. Miniato, near Florence, is one. Henry died in 1024, and
    was succeeded by Conrad of Suabia; and the latter by Henry II., who
    came to Rome; and as there was a schism in the church of three popes,
    he set them all aside, and caused the election of Clement II., by whom
    he was crowned emperor.
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