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    Chapter 9

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    Chapter 9
    Previous Chapter
    No more of talk where God or Angel guest
    With Man, as with his friend, familiar us'd,
    To sit indulgent, and with him partake
    Rural repast; permitting him the while
    Venial discourse unblam'd. I now must change
    Those notes to tragick; foul distrust, and breach
    Disloyal on the part of Man, revolt,
    And disobedience: on the part of Heaven
    Now alienated, distance and distaste,
    Anger and just rebuke, and judgement given,
    That brought into this world a world of woe,
    Sin and her shadow Death, and Misery
    Death's harbinger: Sad talk!yet argument
    Not less but more heroick than the wrath
    Of stern Achilles on his foe pursued
    Thrice fugitive about Troy wall; or rage
    Of Turnus for Lavinia disespous'd;
    Or Neptune's ire, or Juno's, that so long
    Perplexed the Greek, and Cytherea's son:

    00482129
    If answerable style I can obtain
    Of my celestial patroness, who deigns
    Her nightly visitation unimplor'd,
    And dictates to me slumbering; or inspires
    Easy my unpremeditated verse:
    Since first this subject for heroick song
    Pleas'd me long choosing, and beginning late;
    Not sedulous by nature to indite
    Wars, hitherto the only argument
    Heroick deem'd chief mastery to dissect
    With long and tedious havock fabled knights
    In battles feign'd; the better fortitude
    Of patience and heroick martyrdom
    Unsung; or to describe races and games,
    Or tilting furniture, imblazon'd shields,
    Impresses quaint, caparisons and steeds,
    Bases and tinsel trappings, gorgeous knights
    At joust and tournament; then marshall'd feast
    Serv'd up in hall with sewers and seneshals;
    The skill of artifice or office mean,
    Not that which justly gives heroick name
    To person, or to poem. Me, of these
    Nor skill'd nor studious, higher argument
    Remains; sufficient of itself to raise
    That name, unless an age too late, or cold
    Climate, or years, damp my intended wing
    Depress'd; and much they may, if all be mine,
    Not hers, who brings it nightly to my ear.
    The sun was sunk, and after him the star
    Of Hesperus, whose office is to bring
    Twilight upon the earth, short arbiter
    "twixt day and night, and now from end to end
    Night's hemisphere had veil'd the horizon round:
    When satan, who late fled before the threats
    Of Gabriel out of Eden, now improv'd
    In meditated fraud and malice, bent
    On Man's destruction, maugre what might hap
    Of heavier on himself, fearless returned
    From compassing the earth; cautious of day,
    Since Uriel, regent of the sun, descried
    His entrance, and foreworned the Cherubim
    That kept their watch; thence full of anguish driven,
    The space of seven continued nights he rode
    With darkness; thrice the equinoctial line
    He circled; four times crossed the car of night
    From pole to pole, traversing each colure;
    On the eighth returned; and, on the coast averse
    From entrance or Cherubick watch, by stealth
    Found unsuspected way. There was a place,
    Now not, though sin, not time, first wrought the change,
    Where Tigris, at the foot of Paradise,
    Into a gulf shot under ground, till part
    Rose up a fountain by the tree of life:
    In with the river sunk, and with it rose
    Satan, involved in rising mist; then sought
    Where to lie hid; sea he had searched, and land,
    From Eden over Pontus and the pool
    Maeotis, up beyond the river Ob;
    Downward as far antarctick; and in length,
    West from Orontes to the ocean barred
    At Darien ; thence to the land where flows
    Ganges and Indus: Thus the orb he roamed
    With narrow search; and with inspection deep
    Considered every creature, which of all
    Most opportune might serve his wiles; and found
    The Serpent subtlest beast of all the field.
    Him after long debate, irresolute
    Of thoughts revolved, his final sentence chose
    Fit vessel, fittest imp of fraud, in whom
    To enter, and his dark suggestions hide
    From sharpest sight: for, in the wily snake
    Whatever sleights, none would suspicious mark,
    As from his wit and native subtlety
    Proceeding; which, in other beasts observed,
    Doubt might beget of diabolick power
    Active within, beyond the sense of brute.
    Thus he resolved, but first from inward grief
    His bursting passion into plaints thus poured.
    More justly, seat worthier of Gods, as built
    With second thoughts, reforming what was old!
    O Earth, how like to Heaven, if not preferred
    For what God, after better, worse would build?
    Terrestrial Heaven, danced round by other Heavens
    That shine, yet bear their bright officious lamps,
    Light above light, for thee alone, as seems,
    In thee concentring all their precious beams
    Of sacred influence! As God in Heaven
    Is center, yet extends to all; so thou,
    Centring, receivest from all those orbs: in thee,
    Not in themselves, all their known virtue appears
    Productive in herb, plant, and nobler birth
    Of creatures animate with gradual life
    Of growth, sense, reason, all summed up in Man.
    With what delight could I have walked thee round,
    If I could joy in aught, sweet interchange
    Of hill, and valley, rivers, woods, and plains,
    Now land, now sea and shores with forest crowned,
    Rocks, dens, and caves! But I in none of these
    Find place or refuge; and the more I see
    Pleasures about me, so much more I feel
    Torment within me, as from the hateful siege
    Of contraries: all good to me becomes
    Bane, and in Heaven much worse would be my state.
    But neither here seek I, no nor in Heaven
    To dwell, unless by mastering Heaven's Supreme;
    Nor hope to be myself less miserable
    By what I seek, but others to make such
    As I, though thereby worse to me redound:
    For only in destroying I find ease
    To my relentless thoughts; and, him destroyed,
    Or won to what may work his utter loss,
    For whom all this was made, all this will soon
    Follow, as to him linked in weal or woe;
    In woe then; that destruction wide may range:
    To me shall be the glory sole among
    The infernal Powers, in one day to have marred
    What he, Almighty styled, six nights and days
    Continued making; and who knows how long
    Before had been contriving? though perhaps
    Not longer than since I, in one night, freed
    From servitude inglorious well nigh half
    The angelick name, and thinner left the throng
    Of his adorers: He, to be avenged,
    And to repair his numbers thus impaired,
    Whether such virtue spent of old now failed
    More Angels to create, if they at least
    Are his created, or, to spite us more,
    Determined to advance into our room
    A creature formed of earth, and him endow,
    Exalted from so base original,
    With heavenly spoils, our spoils: What he decreed,
    He effected; Man he made, and for him built
    Magnificent this world, and earth his seat,
    Him lord pronounced; and, O indignity!
    Subjected to his service angel-wings,
    And flaming ministers to watch and tend
    Their earthly charge: Of these the vigilance
    I dread; and, to elude, thus wrapt in mist
    Of midnight vapour glide obscure, and pry
    In every bush and brake, where hap may find
    The serpent sleeping; in whose mazy folds
    To hide me, and the dark intent I bring.
    O foul descent! that I, who erst contended
    With Gods to sit the highest, am now constrained
    Into a beast; and, mixed with bestial slime,
    This essence to incarnate and imbrute,
    That to the highth of Deity aspired!
    But what will not ambition and revenge
    Descend to? Who aspires, must down as low
    As high he soared; obnoxious, first or last,
    To basest things. Revenge, at first though sweet,
    Bitter ere long, back on itself recoils:
    Let it; I reck not, so it light well aimed,
    Since higher I fall short, on him who next
    Provokes my envy, this new favourite
    Of Heaven, this man of clay, son of despite,
    Whom, us the more to spite, his Maker raised
    From dust: Spite then with spite is best repaid.
    So saying, through each thicket dank or dry,
    Like a black mist low-creeping, he held on
    His midnight-search, where soonest he might find
    The serpent; him fast-sleeping soon he found
    In labyrinth of many a round self-rolled,
    His head the midst, well stored with subtile wiles:
    Not yet in horrid shade or dismal den,
    Nor nocent yet; but, on the grassy herb,
    Fearless unfeared he slept: in at his mouth
    The Devil entered; and his brutal sense,
    In heart or head, possessing, soon inspired
    With act intelligential; but his sleep
    Disturbed not, waiting close the approach of morn.
    Now, when as sacred light began to dawn
    In Eden on the humid flowers, that breathed
    Their morning incense, when all things, that breathe,
    From the Earth's great altar send up silent praise
    To the Creator, and his nostrils fill
    With grateful smell, forth came the human pair,
    And joined their vocal worship to the quire
    Of creatures wanting voice; that done, partake
    The season prime for sweetest scents and airs:
    Then commune, how that day they best may ply
    Their growing work: for much their work out-grew
    The hands' dispatch of two gardening so wide,
    And Eve first to her husband thus began.
    Adam, well may we labour still to dress
    This garden, still to tend plant, herb, and flower,
    Our pleasant task enjoined; but, till more hands
    Aid us, the work under our labour grows,
    Luxurious by restraint; what we by day
    Lop overgrown, or prune, or prop, or bind,
    One night or two with wanton growth derides
    Tending to wild. Thou therefore now advise,
    Or bear what to my mind first thoughts present:
    Let us divide our labours; thou, where choice
    Leads thee, or where most needs, whether to wind
    The woodbine round this arbour, or direct
    The clasping ivy where to climb; while I,
    In yonder spring of roses intermixed
    With myrtle, find what to redress till noon:
    For, while so near each other thus all day
    Our task we choose, what wonder if so near
    Looks intervene and smiles, or object new
    Casual discourse draw on; which intermits
    Our day's work, brought to little, though begun
    Early, and the hour of supper comes unearned?
    To whom mild answer Adam thus returned.
    Sole Eve, associate sole, to me beyond
    Compare above all living creatures dear!
    Well hast thou motioned, well thy thoughts employed,
    How we might best fulfil the work which here
    God hath assigned us; nor of me shalt pass
    Unpraised: for nothing lovelier can be found
    In woman, than to study houshold good,
    And good works in her husband to promote.
    Yet not so strictly hath our Lord imposed
    Labour, as to debar us when we need
    Refreshment, whether food, or talk between,
    Food of the mind, or this sweet intercourse
    Of looks and smiles; for smiles from reason flow,
    To brute denied, and are of love the food;
    Love, not the lowest end of human life.
    For not to irksome toil, but to delight,
    He made us, and delight to reason joined.
    These paths and bowers doubt not but our joint hands
    Will keep from wilderness with ease, as wide
    As we need walk, till younger hands ere long
    Assist us; But, if much converse perhaps
    Thee satiate, to short absence I could yield:
    For solitude sometimes is best society,
    And short retirement urges sweet return.
    But other doubt possesses me, lest harm
    Befall thee severed from me; for thou knowest
    What hath been warned us, what malicious foe
    Envying our happiness, and of his own
    Despairing, seeks to work us woe and shame
    By sly assault; and somewhere nigh at hand
    Watches, no doubt, with greedy hope to find
    His wish and best advantage, us asunder;
    Hopeless to circumvent us joined, where each
    To other speedy aid might lend at need:
    Whether his first design be to withdraw
    Our fealty from God, or to disturb
    Conjugal love, than which perhaps no bliss
    Enjoyed by us excites his envy more;
    Or this, or worse, leave not the faithful side
    That gave thee being, still shades thee, and protects.
    The wife, where danger or dishonour lurks,
    Safest and seemliest by her husband stays,
    Who guards her, or with her the worst endures.
    To whom the virgin majesty of Eve,
    As one who loves, and some unkindness meets,
    With sweet austere composure thus replied.
    Offspring of Heaven and Earth, and all Earth's Lord!
    That such an enemy we have, who seeks
    Our ruin, both by thee informed I learn,
    And from the parting Angel over-heard,
    As in a shady nook I stood behind,
    Just then returned at shut of evening flowers.
    But, that thou shouldst my firmness therefore doubt
    To God or thee, because we have a foe
    May tempt it, I expected not to hear.
    His violence thou fearest not, being such
    As we, not capable of death or pain,
    Can either not receive, or can repel.
    His fraud is then thy fear; which plain infers
    Thy equal fear, that my firm faith and love
    Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced;
    Thoughts, which how found they harbour in thy breast,
    Adam, mis-thought of her to thee so dear?
    To whom with healing words Adam replied.
    Daughter of God and Man, immortal Eve!
    For such thou art; from sin and blame entire:
    Not diffident of thee do I dissuade
    Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid
    The attempt itself, intended by our foe.
    For he who tempts, though in vain, at least asperses
    The tempted with dishonour foul; supposed
    Not incorruptible of faith, not proof
    Against temptation: Thou thyself with scorn
    And anger wouldst resent the offered wrong,
    Though ineffectual found: misdeem not then,
    If such affront I labour to avert
    From thee alone, which on us both at once
    The enemy, though bold, will hardly dare;
    Or daring, first on me the assault shall light.
    Nor thou his malice and false guile contemn;
    Subtle he needs must be, who could seduce
    Angels; nor think superfluous other's aid.
    I, from the influence of thy looks, receive
    Access in every virtue; in thy sight
    More wise, more watchful, stronger, if need were
    Of outward strength; while shame, thou looking on,
    Shame to be overcome or over-reached,
    Would utmost vigour raise, and raised unite.
    Why shouldst not thou like sense within thee feel
    When I am present, and thy trial choose
    With me, best witness of thy virtue tried?
    So spake domestick Adam in his care
    And matrimonial love; but Eve, who thought
    Less attributed to her faith sincere,
    Thus her reply with accent sweet renewed.
    If this be our condition, thus to dwell
    In narrow circuit straitened by a foe,
    Subtle or violent, we not endued
    Single with like defence, wherever met;
    How are we happy, still in fear of harm?
    But harm precedes not sin: only our foe,
    Tempting, affronts us with his foul esteem
    Of our integrity: his foul esteem
    Sticks no dishonour on our front, but turns
    Foul on himself; then wherefore shunned or feared
    By us? who rather double honour gain
    From his surmise proved false; find peace within,
    Favour from Heaven, our witness, from the event.
    And what is faith, love, virtue, unassayed
    Alone, without exteriour help sustained?
    Let us not then suspect our happy state
    Left so imperfect by the Maker wise,
    As not secure to single or combined.
    Frail is our happiness, if this be so,
    And Eden were no Eden, thus exposed.
    To whom thus Adam fervently replied.
    O Woman, best are all things as the will
    Of God ordained them: His creating hand
    Nothing imperfect or deficient left
    Of all that he created, much less Man,
    Or aught that might his happy state secure,
    Secure from outward force; within himself
    The danger lies, yet lies within his power:
    Against his will he can receive no harm.
    But God left free the will; for what obeys
    Reason, is free; and Reason he made right,
    But bid her well be ware, and still erect;
    Lest, by some fair-appearing good surprised,
    She dictate false; and mis-inform the will
    To do what God expressly hath forbid.
    Not then mistrust, but tender love, enjoins,
    That I should mind thee oft; and mind thou me.
    Firm we subsist, yet possible to swerve;
    Since Reason not impossibly may meet
    Some specious object by the foe suborned,
    And fall into deception unaware,
    Not keeping strictest watch, as she was warned.
    Seek not temptation then, which to avoid
    Were better, and most likely if from me
    Thou sever not: Trial will come unsought.
    Wouldst thou approve thy constancy, approve
    First thy obedience; the other who can know,
    Not seeing thee attempted, who attest?
    But, if thou think, trial unsought may find
    Us both securer than thus warned thou seemest,
    Go; for thy stay, not free, absents thee more;
    Go in thy native innocence, rely
    On what thou hast of virtue; summon all!
    For God towards thee hath done his part, do thine.
    So spake the patriarch of mankind; but Eve
    Persisted; yet submiss, though last, replied.
    With thy permission then, and thus forewarned
    Chiefly by what thy own last reasoning words
    Touched only; that our trial, when least sought,
    May find us both perhaps far less prepared,
    The willinger I go, nor much expect
    A foe so proud will first the weaker seek;
    So bent, the more shall shame him his repulse.
    Thus saying, from her husband's hand her hand
    Soft she withdrew; and, like a Wood-Nymph light,
    Oread or Dryad, or of Delia's train,
    Betook her to the groves; but Delia's self
    In gait surpassed, and Goddess-like deport,
    Though not as she with bow and quiver armed,
    But with such gardening tools as Art yet rude,
    Guiltless of fire, had formed, or Angels brought.
    To Pales, or Pomona, thus adorned,
    Likest she seemed, Pomona when she fled
    Vertumnus, or to Ceres in her prime,
    Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove.
    Her long with ardent look his eye pursued
    Delighted, but desiring more her stay.
    Oft he to her his charge of quick return
    Repeated; she to him as oft engaged
    To be returned by noon amid the bower,
    And all things in best order to invite
    Noontide repast, or afternoon's repose.
    O much deceived, much failing, hapless Eve,
    Of thy presumed return! event perverse!
    Thou never from that hour in Paradise
    Foundst either sweet repast, or sound repose;
    Such ambush, hid among sweet flowers and shades,
    Waited with hellish rancour imminent
    To intercept thy way, or send thee back
    Despoiled of innocence, of faith, of bliss!
    For now, and since first break of dawn, the Fiend,
    Mere serpent in appearance, forth was come;
    And on his quest, where likeliest he might find
    The only two of mankind, but in them
    The whole included race, his purposed prey.
    In bower and field he sought, where any tuft
    Of grove or garden-plot more pleasant lay,
    Their tendance, or plantation for delight;
    By fountain or by shady rivulet
    He sought them both, but wished his hap might find
    Eve separate; he wished, but not with hope
    Of what so seldom chanced; when to his wish,
    Beyond his hope, Eve separate he spies,
    Veiled in a cloud of fragrance, where she stood,
    Half spied, so thick the roses blushing round
    About her glowed, oft stooping to support
    Each flower of slender stalk, whose head, though gay
    Carnation, purple, azure, or specked with gold,
    Hung drooping unsustained; them she upstays
    Gently with myrtle band, mindless the while
    Herself, though fairest unsupported flower,
    From her best prop so far, and storm so nigh.
    Nearer he drew, and many a walk traversed
    Of stateliest covert, cedar, pine, or palm;
    Then voluble and bold, now hid, now seen,
    Among thick-woven arborets, and flowers
    Imbordered on each bank, the hand of Eve:
    Spot more delicious than those gardens feigned
    Or of revived Adonis, or renowned
    Alcinous, host of old Laertes' son;
    Or that, not mystick, where the sapient king
    Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse.
    Much he the place admired, the person more.
    As one who long in populous city pent,
    Where houses thick and sewers annoy the air,
    Forth issuing on a summer's morn, to breathe
    Among the pleasant villages and farms
    Adjoined, from each thing met conceives delight;
    The smell of grain, or tedded grass, or kine,
    Or dairy, each rural sight, each rural sound;
    If chance, with nymph-like step, fair virgin pass,
    What pleasing seemed, for her now pleases more;
    She most, and in her look sums all delight:
    Such pleasure took the Serpent to behold
    This flowery plat, the sweet recess of Eve
    Thus early, thus alone: Her heavenly form
    Angelick, but more soft, and feminine,
    Her graceful innocence, her every air
    Of gesture, or least action, overawed
    His malice, and with rapine sweet bereaved
    His fierceness of the fierce intent it brought:
    That space the Evil-one abstracted stood
    From his own evil, and for the time remained
    Stupidly good; of enmity disarmed,
    Of guile, of hate, of envy, of revenge:
    But the hot Hell that always in him burns,
    Though in mid Heaven, soon ended his delight,
    And tortures him now more, the more he sees
    Of pleasure, not for him ordained: then soon
    Fierce hate he recollects, and all his thoughts
    Of mischief, gratulating, thus excites.
    Thoughts, whither have ye led me! with what sweet
    Compulsion thus transported, to forget
    What hither brought us! hate, not love;nor hope
    Of Paradise for Hell, hope here to taste
    Of pleasure; but all pleasure to destroy,
    Save what is in destroying; other joy
    To me is lost. Then, let me not let pass
    Occasion which now smiles; behold alone
    The woman, opportune to all attempts,
    Her husband, for I view far round, not nigh,
    Whose higher intellectual more I shun,
    And strength, of courage haughty, and of limb
    Heroick built, though of terrestrial mould;
    Foe not informidable! exempt from wound,
    I not; so much hath Hell debased, and pain
    Enfeebled me, to what I was in Heaven.
    She fair, divinely fair, fit love for Gods!
    Not terrible, though terrour be in love
    And beauty, not approached by stronger hate,
    Hate stronger, under show of love well feigned;
    The way which to her ruin now I tend.
    So spake the enemy of mankind, enclosed
    In serpent, inmate bad! and toward Eve
    Addressed his way: not with indented wave,
    Prone on the ground, as since; but on his rear,
    Circular base of rising folds, that towered
    Fold above fold, a surging maze! his head
    Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes;
    With burnished neck of verdant gold, erect
    Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass
    Floated redundant: pleasing was his shape
    And lovely; never since of serpent-kind
    Lovelier, not those that in Illyria changed,
    Hermione and Cadmus, or the god
    In Epidaurus; nor to which transformed
    Ammonian Jove, or Capitoline, was seen;
    He with Olympias; this with her who bore
    Scipio, the highth of Rome. With tract oblique
    At first, as one who sought access, but feared
    To interrupt, side-long he works his way.
    As when a ship, by skilful steersmen wrought
    Nigh river's mouth or foreland, where the wind
    Veers oft, as oft so steers, and shifts her sail:
    So varied he, and of his tortuous train
    Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve,
    To lure her eye; she, busied, heard the sound
    Of rusling leaves, but minded not, as used
    To such disport before her through the field,
    From every beast; more duteous at her call,
    Than at Circean call the herd disguised.
    He, bolder now, uncalled before her stood,
    But as in gaze admiring: oft he bowed
    His turret crest, and sleek enamelled neck,
    Fawning; and licked the ground whereon she trod.
    His gentle dumb expression turned at length
    The eye of Eve to mark his play; he, glad
    Of her attention gained, with serpent-tongue
    Organick, or impulse of vocal air,
    His fraudulent temptation thus began.
    Wonder not, sovran Mistress, if perhaps
    Thou canst, who art sole wonder! much less arm
    Thy looks, the Heaven of mildness, with disdain,
    Displeased that I approach thee thus, and gaze
    Insatiate; I thus single;nor have feared
    Thy awful brow, more awful thus retired.
    Fairest resemblance of thy Maker fair,
    Thee all things living gaze on, all things thine
    By gift, and thy celestial beauty adore
    With ravishment beheld! there best beheld,
    Where universally admired; but here
    In this enclosure wild, these beasts among,
    Beholders rude, and shallow to discern
    Half what in thee is fair, one man except,
    Who sees thee? and what is one? who should be seen
    A Goddess among Gods, adored and served
    By Angels numberless, thy daily train.
    So glozed the Tempter, and his proem tuned:
    Into the heart of Eve his words made way,
    Though at the voice much marvelling; at length,
    Not unamazed, she thus in answer spake.
    What may this mean? language of man pronounced
    By tongue of brute, and human sense expressed?
    The first, at least, of these I thought denied
    To beasts; whom God, on their creation-day,
    Created mute to all articulate sound:
    The latter I demur; for in their looks
    Much reason, and in their actions, oft appears.
    Thee, Serpent, subtlest beast of all the field
    I knew, but not with human voice endued;
    Redouble then this miracle, and say,
    How camest thou speakable of mute, and how
    To me so friendly grown above the rest
    Of brutal kind, that daily are in sight?
    Say, for such wonder claims attention due.
    To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied.
    Empress of this fair world, resplendent Eve!
    Easy to me it is to tell thee all
    What thou commandest; and right thou shouldst be obeyed:
    I was at first as other beasts that graze
    The trodden herb, of abject thoughts and low,
    As was my food; nor aught but food discerned
    Or sex, and apprehended nothing high:
    Till, on a day roving the field, I chanced
    A goodly tree far distant to behold
    Loaden with fruit of fairest colours mixed,
    Ruddy and gold: I nearer drew to gaze;
    When from the boughs a savoury odour blown,
    Grateful to appetite, more pleased my sense
    Than smell of sweetest fennel, or the teats
    Of ewe or goat dropping with milk at even,
    Unsucked of lamb or kid, that tend their play.
    To satisfy the sharp desire I had
    Of tasting those fair apples, I resolved
    Not to defer; hunger and thirst at once,
    Powerful persuaders, quickened at the scent
    Of that alluring fruit, urged me so keen.
    About the mossy trunk I wound me soon;
    For, high from ground, the branches would require
    Thy utmost reach or Adam's: Round the tree
    All other beasts that saw, with like desire
    Longing and envying stood, but could not reach.
    Amid the tree now got, where plenty hung
    Tempting so nigh, to pluck and eat my fill
    I spared not; for, such pleasure till that hour,
    At feed or fountain, never had I found.
    Sated at length, ere long I might perceive
    Strange alteration in me, to degree
    Of reason in my inward powers; and speech
    Wanted not long; though to this shape retained.
    Thenceforth to speculations high or deep
    I turned my thoughts, and with capacious mind
    Considered all things visible in Heaven,
    Or Earth, or Middle; all things fair and good:
    But all that fair and good in thy divine
    Semblance, and in thy beauty's heavenly ray,
    United I beheld; no fair to thine
    Equivalent or second! which compelled
    Me thus, though importune perhaps, to come
    And gaze, and worship thee of right declared
    Sovran of creatures, universal Dame!
    So talked the spirited sly Snake; and Eve,
    Yet more amazed, unwary thus replied.
    Serpent, thy overpraising leaves in doubt
    The virtue of that fruit, in thee first proved:
    But say, where grows the tree? from hence how far?
    For many are the trees of God that grow
    In Paradise, and various, yet unknown
    To us; in such abundance lies our choice,
    As leaves a greater store of fruit untouched,
    Still hanging incorruptible, till men
    Grow up to their provision, and more hands
    Help to disburden Nature of her birth.
    To whom the wily Adder, blithe and glad.
    Empress, the way is ready, and not long;
    Beyond a row of myrtles, on a flat,
    Fast by a fountain, one small thicket past
    Of blowing myrrh and balm: if thou accept
    My conduct, I can bring thee thither soon
    Lead then, said Eve. He, leading, swiftly rolled
    In tangles, and made intricate seem straight,
    To mischief swift. Hope elevates, and joy
    Brightens his crest; as when a wandering fire,
    Compact of unctuous vapour, which the night
    Condenses, and the cold environs round,
    Kindled through agitation to a flame,
    Which oft, they say, some evil Spirit attends,
    Hovering and blazing with delusive light,
    Misleads the amazed night-wanderer from his way
    To bogs and mires, and oft through pond or pool;
    There swallowed up and lost, from succour far.
    So glistered the dire Snake, and into fraud
    Led Eve, our credulous mother, to the tree
    Of prohibition, root of all our woe;
    Which when she saw, thus to her guide she spake.
    Serpent, we might have spared our coming hither,
    Fruitless to me, though fruit be here to excess,
    The credit of whose virtue rest with thee;
    Wonderous indeed, if cause of such effects.
    But of this tree we may not taste nor touch;
    God so commanded, and left that command
    Sole daughter of his voice; the rest, we live
    Law to ourselves; our reason is our law.
    To whom the Tempter guilefully replied.
    Indeed! hath God then said that of the fruit
    Of all these garden-trees ye shall not eat,
    Yet Lords declared of all in earth or air$?
    To whom thus Eve, yet sinless. Of the fruit
    Of each tree in the garden we may eat;
    But of the fruit of this fair tree amidst
    The garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat
    Thereof, nor shall ye touch it, lest ye die.
    She scarce had said, though brief, when now more bold
    The Tempter, but with show of zeal and love
    To Man, and indignation at his wrong,
    New part puts on; and, as to passion moved,
    Fluctuates disturbed, yet comely and in act
    Raised, as of some great matter to begin.
    As when of old some orator renowned,
    In Athens or free Rome, where eloquence
    Flourished, since mute! to some great cause addressed,
    Stood in himself collected; while each part,
    Motion, each act, won audience ere the tongue;
    Sometimes in highth began, as no delay
    Of preface brooking, through his zeal of right:
    So standing, moving, or to highth up grown,
    The Tempter, all impassioned, thus began.
    O sacred, wise, and wisdom-giving Plant,
    Mother of science! now I feel thy power
    Within me clear; not only to discern
    Things in their causes, but to trace the ways
    Of highest agents, deemed however wise.
    Queen of this universe! do not believe
    Those rigid threats of death: ye shall not die:
    How should you? by the fruit? it gives you life
    To knowledge; by the threatener? look on me,
    Me, who have touched and tasted; yet both live,
    And life more perfect have attained than Fate
    Meant me, by venturing higher than my lot.
    Shall that be shut to Man, which to the Beast
    Is open? or will God incense his ire
    For such a petty trespass? and not praise
    Rather your dauntless virtue, whom the pain
    Of death denounced, whatever thing death be,
    Deterred not from achieving what might lead
    To happier life, knowledge of good and evil;
    Of good, how just? of evil, if what is evil
    Be real, why not known, since easier shunned?
    God therefore cannot hurt ye, and be just;
    Not just, not God; not feared then, nor obeyed:
    Your fear itself of death removes the fear.
    Why then was this forbid? Why, but to awe;
    Why, but to keep ye low and ignorant,
    His worshippers? He knows that in the day
    Ye eat thereof, your eyes that seem so clear,
    Yet are but dim, shall perfectly be then
    Opened and cleared, and ye shall be as Gods,
    Knowing both good and evil, as they know.
    That ye shall be as Gods, since I as Man,
    Internal Man, is but proportion meet;
    I, of brute, human; ye, of human, Gods.
    So ye shall die perhaps, by putting off
    Human, to put on Gods; death to be wished,
    Though threatened, which no worse than this can bring.
    And what are Gods, that Man may not become
    As they, participating God-like food?
    The Gods are first, and that advantage use
    On our belief, that all from them proceeds:
    I question it; for this fair earth I see,
    Warmed by the sun, producing every kind;
    Them, nothing: if they all things, who enclosed
    Knowledge of good and evil in this tree,
    That whoso eats thereof, forthwith attains
    Wisdom without their leave? and wherein lies
    The offence, that Man should thus attain to know?
    What can your knowledge hurt him, or this tree
    Impart against his will, if all be his?
    Or is it envy? and can envy dwell
    In heavenly breasts? These, these, and many more
    Causes import your need of this fair fruit.
    Goddess humane, reach then, and freely taste!
    He ended; and his words, replete with guile,
    Into her heart too easy entrance won:
    Fixed on the fruit she gazed, which to behold
    Might tempt alone; and in her ears the sound
    Yet rung of his persuasive words, impregned
    With reason, to her seeming, and with truth:
    Mean while the hour of noon drew on, and waked
    An eager appetite, raised by the smell
    So savoury of that fruit, which with desire,
    Inclinable now grown to touch or taste,
    Solicited her longing eye; yet first
    Pausing a while, thus to herself she mused.
    Great are thy virtues, doubtless, best of fruits,
    Though kept from man, and worthy to be admired;
    Whose taste, too long forborn, at first assay
    Gave elocution to the mute, and taught
    The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise:
    Thy praise he also, who forbids thy use,
    Conceals not from us, naming thee the tree
    Of knowledge, knowledge both of good and evil;
    Forbids us then to taste! but his forbidding
    Commends thee more, while it infers the good
    By thee communicated, and our want:
    For good unknown sure is not had; or, had
    And yet unknown, is as not had at all.
    In plain then, what forbids he but to know,
    Forbids us good, forbids us to be wise?
    Such prohibitions bind not. But, if death
    Bind us with after-bands, what profits then
    Our inward freedom? In the day we eat
    Of this fair fruit, our doom is, we shall die!
    How dies the Serpent? he hath eaten and lives,
    And knows, and speaks, and reasons, and discerns,
    Irrational till then. For us alone
    Was death invented? or to us denied
    This intellectual food, for beasts reserved?
    For beasts it seems: yet that one beast which first
    Hath tasted envies not, but brings with joy
    The good befallen him, author unsuspect,
    Friendly to man, far from deceit or guile.
    What fear I then? rather, what know to fear
    Under this ignorance of good and evil,
    Of God or death, of law or penalty?
    Here grows the cure of all, this fruit divine,
    Fair to the eye, inviting to the taste,
    Of virtue to make wise: What hinders then
    To reach, and feed at once both body and mind?
    So saying, her rash hand in evil hour
    Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat!
    Earth felt the wound; and Nature from her seat,
    Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe,
    That all was lost. Back to the thicket slunk
    The guilty Serpent; and well might;for Eve,
    Intent now wholly on her taste, nought else
    Regarded; such delight till then, as seemed,
    In fruit she never tasted, whether true
    Or fancied so, through expectation high
    Of knowledge; not was Godhead from her thought.
    Greedily she ingorged without restraint,
    And knew not eating death: Satiate at length,
    And hightened as with wine, jocund and boon,
    Thus to herself she pleasingly began.
    O sovran, virtuous, precious of all trees
    In Paradise! of operation blest
    To sapience, hitherto obscured, infamed.
    And thy fair fruit let hang, as to no end
    Created; but henceforth my early care,
    Not without song, each morning, and due praise,
    Shall tend thee, and the fertile burden ease
    Of thy full branches offered free to all;
    Till, dieted by thee, I grow mature
    In knowledge, as the Gods, who all things know;
    Though others envy what they cannot give:
    For, had the gift been theirs, it had not here
    Thus grown. Experience, next, to thee I owe,
    Best guide; not following thee, I had remained
    In ignorance; thou openest wisdom's way,
    And givest access, though secret she retire.
    And I perhaps am secret: Heaven is high,
    High, and remote to see from thence distinct
    Each thing on Earth; and other care perhaps
    May have diverted from continual watch
    Our great Forbidder, safe with all his spies
    About him. But to Adam in what sort
    Shall I appear? shall I to him make known
    As yet my change, and give him to partake
    Full happiness with me, or rather not,
    But keeps the odds of knowledge in my power
    Without copartner? so to add what wants
    In female sex, the more to draw his love,
    And render me more equal; and perhaps,
    A thing not undesirable, sometime
    Superiour; for, inferiour, who is free
    This may be well: But what if God have seen,
    And death ensue? then I shall be no more!
    And Adam, wedded to another Eve,
    Shall live with her enjoying, I extinct;
    A death to think! Confirmed then I resolve,
    Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe:
    So dear I love him, that with him all deaths
    I could endure, without him live no life.
    So saying, from the tree her step she turned;
    But first low reverence done, as to the Power
    That dwelt within, whose presence had infused
    Into the plant sciential sap, derived
    From nectar, drink of Gods. Adam the while,
    Waiting desirous her return, had wove
    Of choicest flowers a garland, to adorn
    Her tresses, and her rural labours crown;
    As reapers oft are wont their harvest-queen.
    Great joy he promised to his thoughts, and new
    Solace in her return, so long delayed:
    Yet oft his heart, divine of something ill,
    Misgave him; he the faltering measure felt;
    And forth to meet her went, the way she took
    That morn when first they parted: by the tree
    Of knowledge he must pass; there he her met,
    Scarce from the tree returning; in her hand
    A bough of fairest fruit, that downy smiled,
    New gathered, and ambrosial smell diffused.
    To him she hasted; in her face excuse
    Came prologue, and apology too prompt;
    Which, with bland words at will, she thus addressed.
    Hast thou not wondered, Adam, at my stay?
    Thee I have missed, and thought it long, deprived
    Thy presence; agony of love till now
    Not felt, nor shall be twice; for never more
    Mean I to try, what rash untried I sought,
    The pain of absence from thy sight. But strange
    Hath been the cause, and wonderful to hear:
    This tree is not, as we are told, a tree
    Of danger tasted, nor to evil unknown
    Opening the way, but of divine effect
    To open eyes, and make them Gods who taste;
    And hath been tasted such: The serpent wise,
    Or not restrained as we, or not obeying,
    Hath eaten of the fruit; and is become,
    Not dead, as we are threatened, but thenceforth
    Endued with human voice and human sense,
    Reasoning to admiration; and with me
    Persuasively hath so prevailed, that I
    Have also tasted, and have also found
    The effects to correspond; opener mine eyes,
    Dim erst, dilated spirits, ampler heart,
    And growing up to Godhead; which for thee
    Chiefly I sought, without thee can despise.
    For bliss, as thou hast part, to me is bliss;
    Tedious, unshared with thee, and odious soon.
    Thou therefore also taste, that equal lot
    May join us, equal joy, as equal love;
    Lest, thou not tasting, different degree
    Disjoin us, and I then too late renounce
    Deity for thee, when Fate will not permit.
    Thus Eve with countenance blithe her story told;
    But in her cheek distemper flushing glowed.
    On the other side Adam, soon as he heard
    The fatal trespass done by Eve, amazed,
    Astonied stood and blank, while horrour chill
    Ran through his veins, and all his joints relaxed;
    From his slack hand the garland wreathed for Eve
    Down dropt, and all the faded roses shed:
    Speechless he stood and pale, till thus at length
    First to himself he inward silence broke.
    O fairest of Creation, last and best
    Of all God's works, Creature in whom excelled
    Whatever can to sight or thought be formed,
    Holy, divine, good, amiable, or sweet!
    How art thou lost! how on a sudden lost,
    Defaced, deflowered, and now to death devote!
    Rather, how hast thou yielded to transgress
    The strict forbiddance, how to violate
    The sacred fruit forbidden! Some cursed fraud
    Of enemy hath beguiled thee, yet unknown,
    And me with thee hath ruined; for with thee
    Certain my resolution is to die:
    How can I live without thee! how forego
    Thy sweet converse, and love so dearly joined,
    To live again in these wild woods forlorn!
    Should God create another Eve, and I
    Another rib afford, yet loss of thee
    Would never from my heart: no, no!I feel
    The link of Nature draw me: flesh of flesh,
    Bone of my bone thou art, and from thy state
    Mine never shall be parted, bliss or woe.
    So having said, as one from sad dismay
    Recomforted, and after thoughts disturbed
    Submitting to what seemed remediless,
    Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turned.
    Bold deed thou hast presumed, adventurous Eve,
    And peril great provoked, who thus hast dared,
    Had it been only coveting to eye
    That sacred fruit, sacred to abstinence,
    Much more to taste it under ban to touch.
    But past who can recall, or done undo?
    Not God Omnipotent, nor Fate; yet so
    Perhaps thou shalt not die, perhaps the fact
    Is not so heinous now, foretasted fruit,
    Profaned first by the serpent, by him first
    Made common, and unhallowed, ere our taste;
    Nor yet on him found deadly; yet he lives;
    Lives, as thou saidst, and gains to live, as Man,
    Higher degree of life; inducement strong
    To us, as likely tasting to attain
    Proportional ascent; which cannot be
    But to be Gods, or Angels, demi-Gods.
    Nor can I think that God, Creator wise,
    Though threatening, will in earnest so destroy
    Us his prime creatures, dignified so high,
    Set over all his works; which in our fall,
    For us created, needs with us must fail,
    Dependant made; so God shall uncreate,
    Be frustrate, do, undo, and labour lose;
    Not well conceived of God, who, though his power
    Creation could repeat, yet would be loth
    Us to abolish, lest the Adversary
    Triumph, and say; "Fickle their state whom God
    "Most favours; who can please him long? Me first
    "He ruined, now Mankind; whom will he next?"
    Matter of scorn, not to be given the Foe.
    However I with thee have fixed my lot,
    Certain to undergo like doom: If death
    Consort with thee, death is to me as life;
    So forcible within my heart I feel
    The bond of Nature draw me to my own;
    My own in thee, for what thou art is mine;
    Our state cannot be severed; we are one,
    One flesh; to lose thee were to lose myself.
    So Adam; and thus Eve to him replied.
    O glorious trial of exceeding love,
    Illustrious evidence, example high!
    Engaging me to emulate; but, short
    Of thy perfection, how shall I attain,
    Adam, from whose dear side I boast me sprung,
    And gladly of our union hear thee speak,
    One heart, one soul in both; whereof good proof
    This day affords, declaring thee resolved,
    Rather than death, or aught than death more dread,
    Shall separate us, linked in love so dear,
    To undergo with me one guilt, one crime,
    If any be, of tasting this fair fruit;
    Whose virtue for of good still good proceeds,
    Direct, or by occasion, hath presented
    This happy trial of thy love, which else
    So eminently never had been known?
    Were it I thought death menaced would ensue
    This my attempt, I would sustain alone
    The worst, and not persuade thee, rather die
    Deserted, than oblige thee with a fact
    Pernicious to thy peace; chiefly assured
    Remarkably so late of thy so true,
    So faithful, love unequalled: but I feel
    Far otherwise the event; not death, but life
    Augmented, opened eyes, new hopes, new joys,
    Taste so divine, that what of sweet before
    Hath touched my sense, flat seems to this, and harsh.
    On my experience, Adam, freely taste,
    And fear of death deliver to the winds.
    So saying, she embraced him, and for joy
    Tenderly wept; much won, that he his love
    Had so ennobled, as of choice to incur
    Divine displeasure for her sake, or death.
    In recompence for such compliance bad
    Such recompence best merits from the bough
    She gave him of that fair enticing fruit
    With liberal hand: he scrupled not to eat,
    Against his better knowledge; not deceived,
    But fondly overcome with female charm.
    Earth trembled from her entrails, as again
    In pangs; and Nature gave a second groan;
    Sky loured; and, muttering thunder, some sad drops
    Wept at completing of the mortal sin
    Original: while Adam took no thought,
    Eating his fill; nor Eve to iterate
    Her former trespass feared, the more to sooth
    Him with her loved society; that now,
    As with new wine intoxicated both,
    They swim in mirth, and fancy that they feel
    Divinity within them breeding wings,
    Wherewith to scorn the earth: But that false fruit
    Far other operation first displayed,
    Carnal desire inflaming; he on Eve
    Began to cast lascivious eyes; she him
    As wantonly repaid; in lust they burn:
    Till Adam thus 'gan Eve to dalliance move.
    Eve, now I see thou art exact of taste,
    And elegant, of sapience no small part;
    Since to each meaning savour we apply,
    And palate call judicious; I the praise
    Yield thee, so well this day thou hast purveyed.
    Much pleasure we have lost, while we abstained
    From this delightful fruit, nor known till now
    True relish, tasting; if such pleasure be
    In things to us forbidden, it might be wished,
    For this one tree had been forbidden ten.
    But come, so well refreshed, now let us play,
    As meet is, after such delicious fare;
    For never did thy beauty, since the day
    I saw thee first and wedded thee, adorned
    With all perfections, so inflame my sense
    With ardour to enjoy thee, fairer now
    Than ever; bounty of this virtuous tree!
    So said he, and forbore not glance or toy
    Of amorous intent; well understood
    Of Eve, whose eye darted contagious fire.
    Her hand he seised; and to a shady bank,
    Thick over-head with verdant roof imbowered,
    He led her nothing loth; flowers were the couch,
    Pansies, and violets, and asphodel,
    And hyacinth; Earth's freshest softest lap.
    There they their fill of love and love's disport
    Took largely, of their mutual guilt the seal,
    The solace of their sin; till dewy sleep
    Oppressed them, wearied with their amorous play,
    Soon as the force of that fallacious fruit,
    That with exhilarating vapour bland
    About their spirits had played, and inmost powers
    Made err, was now exhaled; and grosser sleep,
    Bred of unkindly fumes, with conscious dreams
    Incumbered, now had left them; up they rose
    As from unrest; and, each the other viewing,
    Soon found their eyes how opened, and their minds
    How darkened; innocence, that as a veil
    Had shadowed them from knowing ill, was gone;
    Just confidence, and native righteousness,
    And honour, from about them, naked left
    To guilty Shame; he covered, but his robe
    Uncovered more. So rose the Danite strong,
    Herculean Samson, from the harlot-lap
    Of Philistean Dalilah, and waked
    Shorn of his strength. They destitute and bare
    Of all their virtue: Silent, and in face
    Confounded, long they sat, as strucken mute:
    Till Adam, though not less than Eve abashed,
    At length gave utterance to these words constrained.
    O Eve, in evil hour thou didst give ear
    To that false worm, of whomsoever taught
    To counterfeit Man's voice; true in our fall,
    False in our promised rising; since our eyes
    Opened we find indeed, and find we know
    Both good and evil; good lost, and evil got;
    Bad fruit of knowledge, if this be to know;
    Which leaves us naked thus, of honour void,
    Of innocence, of faith, of purity,
    Our wonted ornaments now soiled and stained,
    And in our faces evident the signs
    Of foul concupiscence; whence evil store;
    Even shame, the last of evils; of the first
    Be sure then.--How shall I behold the face
    Henceforth of God or Angel, erst with joy
    And rapture so oft beheld? Those heavenly shapes
    Will dazzle now this earthly with their blaze
    Insufferably bright. O! might I here
    In solitude live savage; in some glade
    Obscured, where highest woods, impenetrable
    To star or sun-light, spread their umbrage broad
    And brown as evening: Cover me, ye Pines!
    Ye Cedars, with innumerable boughs
    Hide me, where I may never see them more!--
    But let us now, as in bad plight, devise
    What best may for the present serve to hide
    The parts of each from other, that seem most
    To shame obnoxious, and unseemliest seen;
    Some tree, whose broad smooth leaves together sewed,
    And girded on our loins, may cover round
    Those middle parts; that this new comer, Shame,
    There sit not, and reproach us as unclean.
    So counselled he, and both together went
    Into the thickest wood; there soon they chose
    The fig-tree; not that kind for fruit renowned,
    But such as at this day, to Indians known,
    In Malabar or Decan spreads her arms
    Branching so broad and long, that in the ground
    The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow
    About the mother tree, a pillared shade
    High over-arched, and echoing walks between:
    There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat,
    Shelters in cool, and tends his pasturing herds
    At loop-holes cut through thickest shade: Those leaves
    They gathered, broad as Amazonian targe;
    And, with what skill they had, together sewed,
    To gird their waist; vain covering, if to hide
    Their guilt and dreaded shame! O, how unlike
    To that first naked glory! Such of late
    Columbus found the American, so girt
    With feathered cincture; naked else, and wild
    Among the trees on isles and woody shores.
    Thus fenced, and, as they thought, their shame in part
    Covered, but not at rest or ease of mind,
    They sat them down to weep; nor only tears
    Rained at their eyes, but high winds worse within
    Began to rise, high passions, anger, hate,
    Mistrust, suspicion, discord; and shook sore
    Their inward state of mind, calm region once
    And full of peace, now tost and turbulent:
    For Understanding ruled not, and the Will
    Heard not her lore; both in subjection now
    To sensual Appetite, who from beneath
    Usurping over sovran Reason claimed
    Superiour sway: From thus distempered breast,
    Adam, estranged in look and altered style,
    Speech intermitted thus to Eve renewed.
    Would thou hadst hearkened to my words, and staid
    With me, as I besought thee, when that strange
    Desire of wandering, this unhappy morn,
    I know not whence possessed thee; we had then
    Remained still happy; not, as now, despoiled
    Of all our good; shamed, naked, miserable!
    Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve
    The faith they owe; when earnestly they seek
    Such proof, conclude, they then begin to fail.
    To whom, soon moved with touch of blame, thus Eve.
    What words have passed thy lips, Adam severe!
    Imputest thou that to my default, or will
    Of wandering, as thou callest it, which who knows
    But might as ill have happened thou being by,
    Or to thyself perhaps? Hadst thou been there,
    Or here the attempt, thou couldst not have discerned
    Fraud in the Serpent, speaking as he spake;
    No ground of enmity between us known,
    Why he should mean me ill, or seek to harm.
    Was I to have never parted from thy side?
    As good have grown there still a lifeless rib.
    Being as I am, why didst not thou, the head,
    Command me absolutely not to go,
    Going into such danger, as thou saidst?
    Too facile then, thou didst not much gainsay;
    Nay, didst permit, approve, and fair dismiss.
    Hadst thou been firm and fixed in thy dissent,
    Neither had I transgressed, nor thou with me.
    To whom, then first incensed, Adam replied.
    Is this the love, is this the recompence
    Of mine to thee, ingrateful Eve! expressed
    Immutable, when thou wert lost, not I;
    Who might have lived, and joyed immortal bliss,
    Yet willingly chose rather death with thee?
    And am I now upbraided as the cause
    Of thy transgressing? Not enough severe,
    It seems, in thy restraint: What could I more
    I warned thee, I admonished thee, foretold
    The danger, and the lurking enemy
    That lay in wait; beyond this, had been force;
    And force upon free will hath here no place.
    But confidence then bore thee on; secure
    Either to meet no danger, or to find
    Matter of glorious trial; and perhaps
    I also erred, in overmuch admiring
    What seemed in thee so perfect, that I thought
    No evil durst attempt thee; but I rue
    The errour now, which is become my crime,
    And thou the accuser. Thus it shall befall
    Him, who, to worth in women overtrusting,
    Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook;
    And, left to herself, if evil thence ensue,
    She first his weak indulgence will accuse.
    Thus they in mutual accusation spent
    The fruitless hours, but neither self-condemning;
    And of their vain contest appeared no end.
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