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    Chapter 3

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    Chapter 3
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    WE shall begin our history of King Arthur by giving those
    particulars of his life which appear to rest on historical evidence;
    and then proceed to record those legends concerning him which form the
    earliest portion of British literature.
    Arthur was a prince of the tribe of Britons called Silures, whose
    country was South Wales,- the son of Uther, named Pendragon, a title
    given to an elective sovereign, paramount over the many kings of
    Britain. He appears to have commenced his martial career about the
    year 500, and was raised to the Pendragonship about ten years later.
    He is said to have gained twelve victories over the Saxons. The most
    important of them was that of Badon, by some supposed to be Bath, by
    others Berkshire. This was the last of his battles with the Saxons,
    and checked their progress so effectually that Arthur experienced no
    more annoyance from them, and reigned in peace, until the revolt of
    his nephew Modred, twenty years later, which led to the fatal battle
    of Camlan, in Cornwall, in 542. Modred was slain, and Arthur, mortally
    wounded, was conveyed by sea to Glastonbury, where he died, and was
    buried. Tradition preserved the memory of the place of his interment
    within the abbey, as we are told by Giraldus Cambrensis, who was
    present when the grave was opened by command of Henry II. in 1150, and
    saw the bones and sword of the monarch, and a leaden cross let into
    his tombstone, with the inscription in rude Roman letters, "Here
    lies buried the famous King Arthur, in the island Avolonia." This
    story has been elegantly versified by Warton. A popular traditional
    belief was long entertained among the Britons that Arthur was not
    dead, but had been carried off to be healed of his wounds in
    Fairy-land, and that he would reappear to avenge his countrymen, and
    reinstate them in the sovereignty of Britain. In Wharton's Ode a
    bard relates to King Henry the traditional story of Arthur's death,
    and closes with these lines:-

    "Yet in vain a paynim foe
    Armed with fate the mighty blow;
    For when he fell, the Elfin queen,
    All in secret and unseen,
    O'er the fainting hero threw
    Her mantle of ambrosial blue,
    And bade her spirits bear him far,
    In Merlin's agate-axled car,
    To her green isle's enamelled steep,
    Far in the navel of the deep.
    O'er his wounds she sprinkled dew
    From flowers that in Arabia grew.

    There he reigns a mighty king,
    Thence to Britain shall return,
    If right prophetic rolls I learn,
    Borne on victory's spreading plume,
    His ancient sceptre to resume,
    His knightly table to restore,
    And brave the tournaments of yore."

    After this narration another bard came forward, who recited a
    different story:-

    "When Arthur bowed his haughty crest,
    No princess veiled in azure vest
    Snatched him, by Merlin's powerful spell,
    In groves of golden bliss to dwell;
    But when he fell, with winged speed,
    His champions, on a milk-white steed,
    From the battle's hurricane
    Bore him to Joseph's towered fane,*

    In the fair vale of Avalon;
    There, with chanted orison
    And the long blaze of tapers clear,
    The stoled fathers met the bier;
    Through the dim aisles, in order dread
    Of martial woe, the chief they led,
    And deep entombed in holy ground,
    Before the altar's solemn bound."

    * Glastonbury Abbey, said to be founded by Joseph of Arimathea, in a
    spot anciently called the island or valley of Avalonia.
    Tennyson, in his Palace of Art, alludes to the legend of Arthur's
    rescue by the Fairy queen, thus:-

    "Or mythic Uther's deeply wounded son,
    In some fair space of sloping greens,
    Lay dozing in the vale of Avalon,
    And watched by weeping queens."

    It must not be concealed, that the very existence of Arthur has been
    denied by some. Milton says of him: "As to Arthur, more renowned in
    songs and romances than in true stories, who he was, and whether
    ever any such reigned in Britain, hath been doubted heretofore, and
    may again, with good reason." Modern critics, however, admit that
    there was a prince of this name, and find proof of it in the
    frequent mention of him in the writings of the Welsh bards. But the
    Arthur of romance, according to Mr. Owen, a Welsh scholar and
    antiquarian, is a mythological person. "Arthur," he says, "is the
    Great Bear, as the name literally implies (Arctos, Arcturus), and
    perhaps this constellation, being so near the pole, and visibly
    describing a circle in a small space, is the origin of the famous
    Round Table." Let us now turn to the history of King Arthur, as
    recorded by the romantic chroniclers.
    Constans, king of Britain, had three sons, Moines, Ambrosius,
    otherwise called Uther, and Pendragon. Moines, soon after his
    accession to the crown, was vanquished by the Saxons, in consequence
    of the treachery of his seneschal, Vortigern, and growing unpopular
    through misfortune, he was killed by his subjects, and the traitor
    Vortigern chosen in his place.
    Vortigern was soon after defeated in a great battle by Uther and
    Pendragon, the surviving brothers of Moines, and Pendragon ascended
    the throne.
    This prince had great confidence in the wisdom of Merlin, and made
    him his chief adviser. About this time a dreadful war arose between
    the Saxons and Britons. Merlin obliged the royal brothers to swear
    fidelity to each other, but predicted that one of them must fall in
    the first battle. The Saxons were routed, and Pendragon, being
    slain, was succeeded by Uther, who now assumed, in addition to his own
    name, the appellation of Pendragon.
    Merlin still continued a favorite counsellor. At the request of
    Uther, he transported by magic art enormous stones from Ireland, to
    form the sepulchre of Pendragon. These stones constitute the
    monument now called Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain.
    Merlin next proceeded to Carlisle to prepare the Round Table, at
    which he seated an assemblage of the great nobles of the country.
    The companions admitted to this high order were bound by oath to
    assist each other at the hazard of their own lives, to attempt
    singly the most perilous adventures, to lead, when necessary, a life
    of monastic solitude, to fly to arms at the first summons, and never
    to retire from battle till they had defeated the enemy, unless night
    intervened and separated the combatants.
    Soon after this institution, the king invited all his barons to
    the celebration of a great festival, which he proposed holding
    annually at Carlisle.
    As the knights had obtained the sovereign's permission to bring
    their ladies along with them, the beautiful Igerne accompanied her
    husband, Gerlois, Duke of Tintadiel, to one of these anniversaries.
    The king became deeply enamored of the Duchess, and disclosed his
    passion; but Igerne repelled his advances, and revealed his
    solicitations to her husband. On hearing this, the Duke instantly
    removed from court with Igerne, and without taking leave of Uther. The
    king complained to his council of this want of duty, and they
    decided that the Duke should be summoned to court, and, if refractory,
    should be treated as a rebel. As he refused to obey the citation,
    the king carried war into the estates of his vassal, and besieged
    him in the strong castle of Tintadiel. Merlin transformed the king
    into the likeness of Gerlois, and enabled him to have many stolen
    interviews with Igerne. At length the Duke was killed in battle, and
    the king espoused Igerne.
    From this union sprang Arthur, who succeeded his father, Uther, upon
    the throne.


    Arthur, though only fifteen years old at his father's death, was
    elected king, at a general meeting of the nobles. It was not done
    without opposition, for there were many ambitious competitors; but
    Bishop Brice, a person of great sanctity, on Christmas eve addressed
    the assembly, and represented that it would well become them, at
    that solemn season, to put up their prayers for some token which
    should manifest the intentions of Providence respecting their future
    sovereign. This was done, and with such success, that the service
    was scarcely ended, when a miraculous stone was discovered, before the
    church door, and in the stone was firmly fixed a sword, with the
    following words engraven on its hilt:-

    "I am hight Escalibore,
    Unto a king fair tresore."

    Bishop Brice, after exhorting the assembly to offer up their
    thanksgivings for this signal miracle, proposed a law, that whoever
    should be able to draw out the sword from the stone, should be
    acknowledged as sovereign of the Britons; and his proposal was decreed
    by general acclamation. The tributary kings of Uther, and the most
    famous knights, successively put their strength to the proof, but
    the miraculous sword resisted all their efforts. It stood till
    Candlemas; it stood till Easter, and till Pentecost, when the best
    knights in the kingdom usually assembled for the annual tournament.
    Arthur, who was at that time serving in the capacity of squire to
    his foster-brother, Sir Kay, attended his master to the lists. Sir Kay
    fought with great valor and success, but had the misfortune to break
    his sword, and sent Arthur to his mother for a new one. Arthur
    hastened home, but did not find the lady; but having observed near the
    church a sword sticking in a stone, he galloped to the place, drew out
    the sword with great ease, and delivered it to his master. Sir Kay
    would willingly have assumed to himself the distinction conferred by
    the possession of the sword; but when, to confirm the doubters, the
    sword was replaced in the stone, he was utterly unable to withdraw it,
    and it would yield a second time to no hand but Arthur's. Thus
    decisively pointed out by Heaven as their king, Arthur was by
    general consent proclaimed such, and an early day appointed for his
    solemn coronation.
    Immediately after his election to the crown, Arthur found himself
    opposed by eleven kings and one duke, who with a vast army were
    actually encamped in the forest of Rockingham. By Merlin's advice
    Arthur sent an embassy to Brittany to solicit aid of King Ban and King
    Bohort, two of the best knights in the world. They accepted the
    call, and with a powerful army crossed the sea, landing at Portsmouth,
    where they were received with great rejoicing. The rebel kings were
    still superior in numbers; but Merlin by a powerful enchantment,
    caused all their tents to fall down at once, and in the confusion
    Arthur with his allies fell upon them and totally routed them.
    After defeating the rebels, Arthur took the field against the
    Saxons. As they were too strong for him unaided, he sent an embassy to
    Armorica, beseeching the assistance of Hoel, who soon after brought
    over an army to his aid. The two kings joined their forces, and sought
    the enemy, whom they met, and both sides prepared for a decisive
    engagement. "Arthur himself," as Geoffrey of Monmouth relates,
    "dressed in a breastplate worthy of so great a king, places on his
    head a golden helmet engraved with the semblance of a dragon. Over his
    shoulders he throws his shield called Priwen, on which a picture of
    the Holy Virgin constantly recalled her to his memory. Girt with
    Caliburn, a most excellent sword, and fabricated in the isle of
    Avalon, he graces his right hand with the lance named Ron. This was
    a long and broad spear, well contrived for slaughter." After a
    severe conflict, Arthur, calling on the name of the Virgin, rushes
    into the midst of his enemies, and destroys multitudes of them with
    the formidable Caliburn, and puts the rest to flight. Hoel, being
    detained by sickness, took no part in this battle.
    This is called the victory of Mount Badon, and, however disguised by
    fable, it is regarded by historians as a real event.
    The feats performed by Arthur at the battle of Badon Mount are
    thus celebrated in Drayton's verse:-

    "They sung how he himself at Badon bore, that day,
    When at the glorious goal his British scepter lay;
    Two dais together how the battle stronglie stood;
    Pendragon's worthie son, who waded there in blood,
    Three hundred Saxons slew with his owne valiant hand."
    Song IV.


    "-The most famous man of all those times,
    Merlin, who knew the range of all their arts,
    Had built the King his havens, ships and halls,
    Was also Bard, and knew the starry heavens;
    The people called him wizard."- TENNYSON.

    Now Merlin, of whom we have already heard somewhat and shall hear
    more, was the son of no mortal father, but of an Incubus, one of a
    class of beings not absolutely wicked, but far from good, who
    inhabit the regions of the air. Merlin's mother was a virtuous young
    woman, who, on the birth of her son, intrusted him to a priest, who
    hurried him to the baptismal fount, and so saved him from sharing
    the lot of his father, though he retained many marks of his
    unearthly origin.
    At this time Vortigern reigned in Britain. He was a usurper, who had
    caused the death of his sovereign, Moines, and driven the two brothers
    of the late king, whose names were Uther and Pendragon, into
    banishment. Vortigern, who lived in constant fear of the return of the
    rightful heirs of the kingdom, began to erect a strong tower for
    defence. The edifice, when brought by the workmen to a certain height,
    three times fell to the ground, without any apparent cause. The king
    consulted his astrologers on this wonderful event, and learned from
    them that it would be necessary to bathe the cornerstone of the
    foundation with the blood of a child born without a mortal father.
    In search of such an infant, Vortigern sent his messengers all
    over the kingdom, and they by accident discovered Merlin, whose
    lineage seemed to point him out as the individual wanted. They took
    him to the king; but Merlin, young as he was, explained to the king
    the absurdity of attempting to rescue the fabric by such means, for he
    told him the true cause of the instability of the tower was its
    being placed over the den of two immense dragons, whose combats
    shook the earth above them. The king ordered his workmen to dig
    beneath the tower, and when they had done so they discovered two
    enormous serpents, the one white as milk, the other red as fire. The
    multitude looked on with amazement, till the serpents, slowly rising
    from their den, and expanding their enormous folds, began the
    combat, when every one fled in terror, except Merlin, who stood by
    clapping his hands and cheering on the conflict. The red dragon was
    slain, and the white one, gliding through a cleft in the rock,
    These animals typified, as Merlin afterwards explained, the invasion
    of Uther and Pendragon, the rightful princes, who soon after landed
    with a great army. Vortigern was defeated, and afterwards burned alive
    in the castle he had taken such pains to construct. On the death of
    Vortigern, Pendragon ascended the throne. Merlin became his chief
    adviser, and often assisted the king by his magical arts. Among
    other endowments, he had the power to transform himself into any shape
    he pleased. At one time he appeared as a dwarf, at others as a damsel,
    a page, or even a greyhound or a stag. This faculty he often
    employed for the service of the king, and sometimes also for the
    diversion of the court and the sovereign.
    Merlin continued to be a favorite counsellor through the reigns of
    Pendragon, Uther, and Arthur, and at last disappeared from view, and
    was no more found among men, through the treachery of his mistress,
    Viviane, the Fairy, which happened in this wise.
    Merlin, having become enamored of the fair Viviane, the Lady of
    the Lake, was weak enough to impart to her various important secrets
    of his art, being impelled by a fatal destiny, of which he was at
    the same time fully aware. The lady, however, was not content with his
    devotion, unbounded as it seems to have been, but "cast about," the
    Romance tells us, how she might "detain him for evermore," and one day
    addressed him in these terms: "Sir, I would that we should make a fair
    place and a suitable, so contrived by art and by cunning that it might
    never be undone, and that you and I should be there in joy and
    solace." "My lady," said Merlin, "I will do all this." "Sir," said
    she, "I would not have you do it, but you shall teach me, and I will
    do it, and then it will be more to my mind." "I grant you this,"
    said Merlin. Then he began to devise, and the damsel put it all in
    writing. And when he had devised the whole, then had the damsel full
    great joy, and showed him greater semblance of love than she had
    ever before made, and they sojourned together a long while. At
    length it fell out that, as they were going one day in hand through
    the forest of Breceliande, they found a bush of white-thorn, which was
    laden with flowers; and they seated themselves, under the shade of
    this white-thorn, upon the grass, and Merlin laid his head upon the
    damsel's lap, and fell asleep. Then the damsel rose, and made a ring
    with her wimple round the bush, and round Merlin, and began her
    enchantments, such as he himself had taught her; and nine times she
    made the ring, and nine times she made the enchantment, and then she
    went and sat down by him, and placed his head again upon her lap.
    And when he awoke, and looked round him, it seemed to him that he
    was enclosed in the strongest tower in the world, and laid upon a fair
    bed. Then said he to the dame: "My lady, you have deceived me,
    unless you abide with me, for no one hath power to unmake this tower
    but you alone." She then promised that she would be often there, and
    in this she held her covenant with him. And Merlin never went out of
    that tower where his Mistress Viviane had enclosed him; but she
    entered and went out again when she listed.
    After this event Merlin was never more known to hold converse with
    any mortal but Viviane, except on one occasion. Arthur, having for
    some time missed him from his court, sent several of his knights in
    search of him, and among the number Sir Gawain, who met with a very
    unpleasant adventure while engaged in this quest. Happening to pass
    a damsel on his road, and neglecting to salute her, she revenged
    herself for his incivility by transforming him into a hideous dwarf.
    He was bewailing aloud his evil fortune as he went through the
    forest of Breceliande, when suddenly he heard the voice of one
    groaning on his right hand; and, looking that way, he could see
    nothing save a kind of smoke, which seemed like air, and through which
    he could not pass. Merlin then addressed him from out the smoke, and
    told him by what misadventure he was imprisoned there. "Ah, sir!" he
    added, "you will never see me more, and that grieves me, but I
    cannot remedy it; I shall never more speak to you, nor to any other
    person, save only my mistress. But do thou hasten to King Arthur,
    and charge him from me to undertake, without delay, the quest of the
    Sacred Graal. The knight is already born, and has received
    knighthood at his hands, who is destined to accomplish this quest."
    And after this he comforted Gawain under his transformation,
    assuring him that he should speedily be disenchanted; and he predicted
    to him that he should find the king at Carduel, in Wales, on his
    return, and that all the other knights who had been on like quest
    would arrive there the same day as himself. And all this came to
    pass as Merlin had said.
    Merlin is frequently introduced in the tales of chivalry, but it
    is chiefly on great occasions, and at a period subsequent to his
    death, or magical disappearance. In the romantic poems of Italy, and
    in Spenser, Merlin is chiefly represented as a magical artist. Spenser
    represents him as the artificer of the impenetrable shield and other
    armor of Prince Arthur (Faery Queene, Book I., Canton vii.), and of
    a mirror, in which a damsel viewed her lover's shade. The Fountain
    of Love, in the Orlando Innamorato, is described as his work; and in
    the poem of Ariosto we are told of a hall adorned with prophetic
    paintings, which demons had executed in a single night, under the
    direction of Merlin.
    The following legend is from Spenser's Faery Queene (Book III.,
    Canto iii.):-


    Forthwith themselves disguising both, in straunge
    And base attire, that none might them bewray,
    To Maridunum, that is now by chaunge
    Of name Caer-Merdin called, they took their way:
    There the wise Merlin, whylome wont (they say)
    To make his wonne, low underneath the ground
    In a deep delve, far from the view of day,
    That of no living wight he mote be found,
    Whenso he counselled with his sprights encompassed round.

    And if thou ever happen that same way
    To travel, go to see that dreadful place;
    It is a hideous hollow cave (they say)
    Under a rock that lies a little space,
    From the swift Barry, tombling down apace
    Amongst the woody hills of Dynevor;
    But dare not thou, I charge, in any case,
    To enter into that same baleful bower,
    For fear the cruel fiends should thee unwares devour.

    But standing high aloft, low lay thine ear,
    And there such ghastly noise of iron chains
    And brazen cauldrons thou shalt rumbling hear,
    Which thousand sprites with long enduring pains
    Do toss, that it will stun thy feeble brains;
    And oftentimes great groans, and grievous stounds,
    When too huge toil and labor them constrains;
    And oftentimes loud strokes and ringing sounds
    From under that deep rock most horribly rebounds.

    The cause some say is this. A little while
    Before that Merlin died, he did intend
    A brazen wall in compas to compile
    About Caermerdin, and did it commend
    Unto these sprites to bring to perfect end;
    During which work the Lady of the Lake,
    Whom long he loved, for him in haste did send;
    Who, thereby forced his workmen to forsake,
    Them bound till his return their labor not to slack.

    In the meantime, through that false lady's train,
    He was surprised, and buried under beare,*
    Ne ever to his work returned again;
    Natheless those fiends may not their work forbear,
    So greatly his commandement they fear;
    But there do toil and travail day and night,
    Until that brazen wall they up do rear.
    For Merlin had in magic more insight
    Than ever him before or after living wight.

    * Buried under beare. Buried under something which enclosed him like
    a coffin or bier.


    "Leodogran, the King of Cameliard,
    Had one fair daughter, and none other child,
    And she was fairest of all flesh on earth,
    Guenevere, and in her his one delight."

    Merlin had planned for Arthur a marriage with the daughter of King
    Laodegan* of Carmalide. By his advice Arthur paid a visit to the court
    of that sovereign, attended only by Merlin and by thirty-nine
    knights whom the magician had selected for that service. On their
    arrival they found Laodegan and his peers sitting in council,
    endeavoring, but with small prospect of success, to devise means for
    resisting the impending attack of Ryence, King of Ireland, who, with
    fifteen tributary kings and an almost innumerable army, had nearly
    surrounded the city. Merlin, who acted as leader of the band of
    British knights, announced them as strangers, who came to offer the
    king their services in his wars; but under the express condition
    that they should be at liberty to conceal their names and quality
    until they should think proper to divulge them. These terms were
    thought very strange, but were thankfully accepted, and the strangers,
    after taking the usual oath to the king, retired to the lodging
    which Merlin had prepared for them.

    * The spelling of these proper names is very often only a matter
    of taste. I think, however, Leodogran and Guenevere are less common
    than Laodegan and Guenever.

    A few days after this, the enemy, regardless of a truce into which
    they had entered with King Laodegan, suddenly issued from their camp
    and made an attempt to surprise the city. Cleodalis, the king's
    general, assembled the royal forces with all possible despatch. Arthur
    and his companions also flew to arms, and Merlin appeared at their
    head, bearing a standard on which was emblazoned a terrific dragon.
    Merlin advanced to the gate, and commanded the porter to open it,
    which the porter refused to do, without the king's order. Merlin
    thereupon took up the gate, with all its appurtenances of locks, bars,
    and bolts, and directed his troop to pass through, after which he
    replaced it in perfect order. He then set spurs to his horse, and
    dashed, at the head of the little troop, into a body of two thousand
    Pagans. The disparity of numbers being so enormous, Merlin cast a
    spell upon the enemy, so as to prevent their seeing the small number
    of their assailants; notwithstanding which the British knights were
    hard pressed. But the people of the city, who saw from the walls
    this unequal contest, were ashamed of leaving the small body of
    strangers to their fate, so they opened the gate and sallied forth.
    The numbers were now more nearly equal, and Merlin revoked his
    spell, so that the two armies encountered on fair terms. Where Arthur,
    Ban, Bohort, and the rest fought, the king's army had the advantage;
    but in another part of the field the king himself was surrounded and
    carried off by the enemy. This sad sight was seen by Guenever, the
    fair daughter of the king, who stood on the city wall and looked at
    the battle. She was in dreadful distress, tore her hair, and swooned
    But Merlin, aware of what passed in every part of the field,
    suddenly collected his knights, led them out of the battle,
    intercepted the passage of the party who were carrying away the
    king, charged them with irresistible impetuosity, cut in pieces or
    dispersed the whole escort, and rescued the king. In the fight
    Arthur encountered Caulang, a giant fifteen feet high, and the fair
    Guenever, who already began to feel a strong interest in the
    handsome young stranger, trembled for the issue of the contest. But
    Arthur, dealing a dreadful blow on the shoulder of the monster, cut
    through his neck so that his head hung over on one side, and in this
    condition his horse carried him about the field, to the great horror
    and dismay of the Pagans. Guenever could not refrain from expressing
    aloud her wish that the gentle knight, who dealt with giants so
    dexterously, were destined to become her husband, and the wish was
    echoed by her attendants. The enemy soon turned their backs, and
    fled with precipitation, closely pursued by Laodegan and his allies.
    After the battle Arthur was disarmed and conducted to the bath by
    the Princess Guenever, while his friends were attended by the other
    ladies of the court. After the bath the knights were conducted to a
    magnificent entertainment, at which they were diligently served by the
    same fair attendants. Laodegan, more and more anxious to know the name
    and quality of his generous deliverers, and occasionally forming a
    secret wish that the chief of his guests might be captivated by the
    charms of his daughter, appeared silent and pensive, and was
    scarcely roused from his reverie by the banter of his courtiers.
    Arthur, having had an opportunity of explaining to Guenever his
    great esteem for her merit, was in the joy of his heart, and was still
    further delighted by hearing from Merlin the late exploits of Gawain
    at London, by means of which his immediate return to his dominions was
    rendered unnecessary, and he was left at liberty to protract his
    stay at the court of Laodegan. Every day contributed to increase the
    admiration of the whole court for the gallant strangers, and the
    passion of Guenever for their chief; and when at last Merlin announced
    to the king that the object of the visit of the party was to procure a
    bride for their leader, Laodegan at once presented Guenever to Arthur,
    telling him that, whatever might be his rank, his merit was sufficient
    to entitle him to the possession of the heiress of Carmalide. Arthur
    accepted the lady with the utmost gratitude, and Merlin then proceeded
    to satisfy the king of the rank of his son-in-law; upon which
    Laodegan, with all his barons, hastened to do homage to their lawful
    sovereign, the successor of Uther Pendragon. The fair Guenever was
    then solemnly betrothed to Arthur, and a magnificent festival was
    proclaimed, which lasted seven days. At the end of that time, the
    enemy appearing again with renewed force, it became necessary to
    resume military operations.*

    * Guenever, the name of Arthur's queen, also written Genievre and
    Geneuras, is familiar to all who are conversant with chivalric lore.
    It is to her adventures, and those of her true knight, Sir
    Launcelot, that Dante alludes in the beautiful episode of Francesca da

    We must now relate what took place at or near London while Arthur
    was absent from his capital. At this very time a band of young
    heroes were on their way to Arthur's court, for the purpose of
    receiving knighthood from him. They were Gawain and his three
    brothers, nephews of Arthur, sons of King Lot, and Galachin, another
    nephew, son of King Nanters. King Lot had been one of the rebel chiefs
    whom Arthur had defeated, but he now hoped by means of the young men
    to be reconciled to his brother-in-law. He equipped his sons and his
    nephew with the utmost magnificence, giving them a splendid retinue of
    young men, sons of earls and barons, all mounted on the best horses,
    with complete suits of choice armor. They numbered in all seven
    hundred, but only nine had yet received the order of knighthood; the
    rest were candidates for that honor, and anxious to earn it by an
    early encounter with the enemy. Gawain, the leader, was a knight of
    wonderful strength; but what was most remarkable about him was that
    his strength was greater at certain hours of the day than at others.
    From nine o'clock till noon his strength was doubled, and so it was
    from three to even-song; for the rest of the time it was less
    remarkable, though at all times surpassing that of ordinary men.
    After a march of three days they arrived in the vicinity of
    London, where they expected to find Arthur and his court; and very
    unexpectedly fell in with a large convoy belonging to the enemy,
    consisting of numerous carts and wagons, all loaded with provisions,
    and escorted by three thousand men, who had been collecting spoil from
    all the country round. A single charge from Gawain's impetuous cavalry
    was sufficient to disperse the escort and to recover the convoy, which
    was instantly despatched to London. But before long a body of seven
    thousand fresh soldiers advanced to the attack of the five princes and
    their little army. Gawain, singling out a chief named Choas, of
    gigantic size, began the battle by splitting him from the crown of the
    head to the breast. Galachin encountered King Sanagran, who was also
    very huge, and cut off his head. Agrivain and Gahariet also
    performed prodigies of valor. Thus they kept the great army of
    assailants at bay, though hard pressed, till of a sudden they
    perceived a strong body of the citizens advancing from London, where
    the convoy which had been recovered by Gawain had arrived, and
    informed the mayor and citizens of the danger of their deliverer.
    The arrival of the Londoners soon decided the contest. The enemy
    fled in all directions, and Gawain and his friends, escorted by the
    grateful citizens, entered London, and were received with
    After the great victory of Mount Badon, by which the Saxons were for
    the time effectually put down, Arthur turned his arms against the
    Scots and Picts, whom he routed at Lake Lomond, and compelled to sue
    for mercy. He then went to York to keep his Christmas, and employed
    himself in restoring the Christian churches which the Pagans had
    rifled and overthrown. The following summer he conquered Ireland,
    and then made a voyage with his fleet to Iceland, which he also
    subdued. The kings of Gothland and of the Orkneys came voluntarily and
    made their submission, promising to pay tribute. Then he returned to
    Britain, where, having established the kingdom, he dwelt twelve
    years in peace.
    During this time, he invited over to him all persons whatsoever that
    were famous for valor in foreign nations, and augmented the number
    of his domestics, and introduced such politeness into his court as
    people of the remotest countries thought worthy of their imitation. So
    that there was not a nobleman who thought himself of any consideration
    unless his clothes and arms were made in the same fashion as those
    of Arthur's knights.
    Finding himself so powerful at home, Arthur began to form designs
    for extending his power abroad. So, having prepared his fleet, he
    first attempted Norway, that he might procure the crown of it for Lot,
    his sister's husband. Arthur landed in Norway, fought a great battle
    with the king of that country, defeated him, and pursued the victory
    till he had reduced the whole country under his dominion, and
    established Lot upon the throne. Then Arthur made a voyage to Gaul and
    laid siege to the city of Paris. Gaul was at that time a Roman
    province, and governed by Flollo, the Tribune. When the siege of Paris
    had continued a month, and the people began to suffer from famine,
    Flollo challenged Arthur to single combat, proposing to decide the
    conquest in that way. Arthur gladly accepted the challenge, and slew
    his adversary in the contest, upon which the citizens surrendered
    the city to him. After the victory Arthur divided his army into two
    parts, one of which he committed to the conduct of Hoel, whom he
    ordered to march into Aquitaine, while he with the other part should
    endeavor to subdue the other provinces. At the end of nine years, in
    which time all the parts of Gaul were entirely reduced, Arthur
    returned to Paris, where he kept his court, and calling an assembly of
    the clergy and people, established peace and the just administration
    of the laws in that kingdom. Then he bestowed Normandy upon Bedver,
    his butler, and the province of Andegavia upon Kay, his steward,*
    and several others upon his great men that attended him. And, having
    settled the peace of the cities and countries, he returned back in the
    beginning of spring to Britain.

    * This name, in the French romances, is spelled Queux, which means
    head cook. This would seem to imply that it was a title, and not a
    name; yet the personage who bore it is never mentioned by any other.
    He is the chief, if not the only, comic character among the heroes
    of Arthur's court. He is the Seneschal or Steward, his duties also
    embracing those of chief of the cooks. In the romances his general
    character is a compound of valor and buffoonery, always ready to
    fight, and generally getting the worst of the battle. He is also
    sarcastic and abusive in his remarks, by which he often gets into
    trouble. Yet Arthur seems to have an attachment to him, and often
    takes his advice, which is generally wrong.

    Upon the approach of the feast of Pentecost, Arthur, the better to
    demonstrate his joy after such triumphant successes, and for the
    more solemn observation of that festival, and reconciling the minds of
    the princes that were now subject to him, resolved during that
    season to hold a magnificent court, to place the crown upon his
    head, and to invite all the kings and dukes under his subjection to
    the solemnity. And he pitched upon Caerleon, the City of Legions, as
    the proper place for his purpose. For, besides its great wealth
    above the other cities,* its situation upon the river Usk, near the
    Severn sea, was most pleasant and fit for so great a solemnity. For on
    one side it was washed by that noble river, so that the kings and
    princes from the countries beyond the seas might have the
    convenience of sailing up to it. On the other side the beauty of the
    meadows and groves, and magnificence of the royal palaces, with
    lofty gilded roofs that adorned it, made it even rival the grandeur of
    Rome. It was also famous for two churches, whereof one was adorned
    with a choir of virgins, who devoted themselves wholly to the
    service of God, and the other maintained a convent of priests.
    Besides, there was a college of two hundred philosophers, who, being
    learned in astronomy and the other arts, were diligent in observing
    the courses of the stars, and gave Arthur true predictions of the
    events that would happen. In this place, therefore, which afforded
    such delights, were preparations made for the ensuing festival.

    * Several cities are allotted to King Arthur by the romance-writers.
    The principal are Caerleon, Camelot, and Carlisle.
    Caerleon derives its name from its having been the station of one of
    the legions during the dominion of the Romans. It is called by Latin
    writers Urbs Legionum, the City of Legions,- the former word being
    rendered into Welsh by Caer, meaning city, and the latter contracted
    into lleon. The river Usk retains its name in modern geography, and
    there is a town or city of Caerleon upon it, though the city of
    Cardiff is thought to be the scene of Arthur's court. Chester also
    bears the Welsh name of Caerleon; for Chester, derived from castra,
    Latin for camp, is the designation of military headquarters.
    Camelot is thought to be Winchester.
    Shalott is Guildford.
    Hamo's Port is Southampton.
    Carlisle is the city still retaining that name, near the Scottish
    border. But this name is also sometimes applied to other places, which
    were, like itself, military stations.

    Ambassadors were then sent into several kingdoms, to invite to court
    the princes both of Gaul and of the adjacent islands. Accordingly
    there came Augusel, king of Albania, now Scotland, Cadwallo, king of
    Venedotia, now North Wales, Sater, king of Demetia, now South Wales;
    also the archbishops of the metropolitan sees, London and York, and
    Dubricius, bishop of Caerleon, the City of Legions. This prelate,
    who was primate of Britain, was so eminent for his piety that he could
    cure any sick person by his prayers. There were also the counts of the
    principal cities, and many other worthies of no less dignity.
    From the adjacent islands came Guillamurius, king of Ireland,
    Gunfasius, king of the Orkneys, Malvasius, king of Iceland, Lot,
    king of Norway, Bedver the butler, Duke of Normandy, Kay the sewer,
    Duke of Andegavia; also the twelve peers of Gaul, and Hoel, Duke of
    the Armorican Britons, with his nobility, who came with such a train
    of mules, horses, and rich furniture, as is difficult to describe.
    Besides these, there remained no prince of any consideration on this
    side of Spain who came not upon this invitation, and no wonder, when
    Arthur's munificence, which was celebrated over the whole world,
    made him beloved by all people.
    When all were assembled, upon the day of the solemnity, the
    archbishops were conducted to the palace in order to place the crown
    upon the king's head. Then Dubricius, inasmuch as the court was held
    in his diocese, made himself ready to celebrate the office. As soon as
    the king was invested with his royal habiliments, he was conducted
    in great pomp to the metropolitan church, having four kings, viz.,
    of Albania, Cornwall, Demetia, and Venedotia, bearing four golden
    swords before him. On another part was the queen, dressed out in her
    richest ornaments, conducted by the archbishops and bishops to the
    Church of Virgins; the four queens, also, of the kings last mentioned,
    bearing before her four white doves, according to ancient custom. When
    the whole procession was ended, so transporting was the harmony of the
    musical instruments and voices, whereof there was a vast variety in
    both churches, that the knights who attended were in doubt which to
    prefer, and therefore crowded from one to the other by turns, and were
    far from being tired of the solemnity, though the whole day had been
    spent in it. At last, when divine service was over at both churches,
    the king and queen put off their crowns, and, putting on their lighter
    ornaments, went to the banquet. When they had all taken their seats
    according to precedence, Kay the sewer, in rich robes of ermine,
    with a thousand young noblemen all in like manner clothed in rich
    attire, served up the dishes. From another part Bedver the butler
    was followed by the same number of attendants, who waited with all
    kinds of cups and drinking-vessels. And there was food and drink in
    abundance, and everything was of the best kind, and served in the best
    manner. For at that time Britain had arrived at such a pitch of
    grandeur that in riches, luxury, and politeness it far surpassed all
    other kingdoms.
    As soon as the banquets were over they went into the fields
    without the city, to divert themselves with various sports, such as
    shooting with bows and arrows, tossing the pike, casting of heavy
    stones and rocks, playing at dice, and the like, and all these
    inoffensively, and without quarrelling. In this manner were three days
    spent, and after that they separated, and the kings and noblemen
    departed to their several homes.
    After this Arthur reigned five years in peace. Then came ambassadors
    from Lucius Tiberius, Procurator under Leo, Emperor of Rome, demanding
    tribute. But Arthur refused to pay tribute, and prepared for war. As
    soon as the necessary dispositions were made, he committed the
    government of his kingdom to his nephew Modred and to Queen
    Guenever, and marched with his army to Hamo's Port, where the wind
    stood fair for him. The army crossed over in safety, and landed at the
    mouth of the river Barba. And there they pitched their tents to wait
    the arrival of the kings of the islands.
    As soon as all the forces were arrived, Arthur marched forward to
    Augustodunum, and encamped on the banks of the river Alba. Here
    repeated battles were fought, in all which the Britons, under their
    valiant leaders, Hoel, Duke of Armorica, and Gawain, nephew to Arthur,
    had the advantage. At length Lucius Tiberius determined to retreat,
    and wait for the Emperor Leo to join him with fresh troops. But
    Arthur, anticipating this event, took possession of a certain
    valley, and closed up the way of retreat to Lucius, compelling him
    to fight a decisive battle, in which Arthur lost some of the bravest
    of his knights and most faithful followers. But on the other hand
    Lucius Tiberius was slain, and his army totally defeated. The
    fugitives dispersed over the country, some to the by-ways and woods,
    some to the cities and towns, and all other places where they could
    hope for safety.
    Arthur stayed in those parts till the next winter was over, and
    employed his time in restoring order and settling the government. He
    then returned into England, and celebrated his victories with great
    Then the king established all his knights, and to them that were not
    rich he gave lands, and charged them all never to do outrage nor
    murder, and always to flee treason; also, by no means to be cruel, but
    to give mercy unto him that asked mercy, upon pain of forfeiture of
    their worship and lordship; and always to do ladies, damosels, and
    gentlewomen service, upon pain of death. Also that no man take
    battle in a wrongful quarrel, for no law, nor for any world's goods.
    Unto this were all the knights sworn of the Table Round, both old
    and young. And at every year were they sworn at the high feast of


    While the army was encamped in Brittany, awaiting the arrival of the
    kings, there came a countryman to Arthur, and told him that a giant,
    whose cave was in a neighboring mountain, called St. Michael's
    Mount, had for a long time been accustomed to carry off the children
    of the peasants, to devour them. "And now he hath taken the Duchess of
    Brittany, as she rode with her attendants, and hath carried her away
    in spite of all they could do." "Now, fellow," said King Arthur,
    "canst thou bring me there where this giant haunteth?" "Yea, sure,"
    said the good man; "lo, yonder where thou seest two great fires, there
    shalt thou find him, and more treasure than I suppose is in all France
    beside." Then the king called to him Sir Bedver and Sir Kay, and
    commanded them to make ready horse and harness for himself and them;
    for after evening he would ride on pilgrimage to St. Michael's Mount.
    So they three departed, and rode forth till they came to the foot of
    the mount. And there the king commanded them to tarry, for he would
    himself go up into that mount. So he ascended the hill till he came to
    a great fire, and there he found an aged woman sitting by a new-made
    grave, making great sorrow. Then King Arthur saluted her, and demanded
    of her wherefore she made such lamentation; to whom she answered: "Sir
    Knight, speak low, for yonder is a devil, and if he hear thee speak he
    will come and destroy thee. For ye cannot make resistance to him, he
    is so fierce and so strong. He hath murdered the Duchess, which here
    lieth, who was the fairest of all the world, wife to Sir Hoel, Duke of
    Brittany." "Dame," said the king, "I come from the noble conqueror,
    King Arthur, to treat with that tyrant." "Fie on such treaties,"
    said she; "he setteth not by the king, nor by no man else." "Well,"
    said Arthur, "I will accomplish my message for all your fearful
    words." So he went forth by the crest of the hill, and saw where the
    giant sat at supper, gnawing on the limb of a man, and baking his
    broad limbs at the fire, and three fair damsels lying bound, whose lot
    it was to be devoured in their turn. When King Arthur beheld that he
    had great compassion on them, so that his heart bled for sorrow.
    Then he hailed the giant, saying, "He that all the world ruleth give
    thee short life and shameful death. Why hast thou murdered this
    Duchess? Therefore come forth, thou caitiff, for this day thou shalt
    die by my hand." Then the giant started up, and took a great club, and
    smote at the king, and smote off his coronal; and then the king struck
    him in the belly with his sword, and made a fearful wound. Then the
    giant threw away his club, and caught the king in his arms, so that he
    crushed his ribs. Then the three maidens kneeled down and prayed for
    help and comfort for Arthur. And Arthur weltered and wrenched, so that
    he was one while under, and another time above. And so weltering and
    wallowing they rolled down the hill, and ever as they weltered
    Arthur smote him with his dagger; and it fortuned they came to the
    place where the two knights were. And when they saw the king fast in
    the giant's arms they came and loosed him. Then the king commanded Sir
    Kay to smite off the giant's head, and to set it on the truncheon of a
    spear, and fix it on the barbican, that all the people might see and
    behold it. This was done, and anon it was known through all the
    country, wherefor the people came and thanked the king. And he said,
    "Give your thanks to God; and take ye the giant's spoil and divide
    it among you." And King Arthur caused a church to be builded on that
    hill, in honor of St. Michael.


    One day King Arthur rode forth, and on a sudden he was ware of three
    churls chasing Merlin to have slain him. And the king rode unto them
    and bade them, "Flee, churls!" Then were they afraid when they saw a
    knight, and fled. "O Merlin," said Arthur, "here hadst thou been
    slain, for all thy crafts, had I not been by." "Nay," said Merlin,
    "not so, for I could save myself if I would; but thou art more near
    thy death than I am." So, as they went thus walking, King Arthur
    perceived where sat a knight on horseback, as if to guard the pass.
    "Sir knight," said Arthur, "for what cause abidest thou here?" Then
    the knight said, "There may no knight ride this way unless he joust
    with me, for such is the custom of the pass." "I will amend that
    custom," said the king. Then they ran together, and they met so hard
    that their spears were shivered. Then they drew their swords and
    fought a strong battle, with many great strokes. But at length the
    sword of the knight smote King Arthur's sword in two pieces. Then said
    the knight unto Arthur, "Thou art in my power, whether to save thee or
    slay thee, and unless thou yield thee as overcome and recreant thou
    shalt die." "As for death," said King Arthur, "welcome be it when it
    cometh; but to yield me unto thee as recreant I will not." Then he
    leapt upon the knight, and took him by the middle and threw him
    down; but the knight was a passing strong man, and anon he brought
    Arthur under him, and would have razed off his helm to slay him.
    Then said Merlin, "Knight, hold thy hand, for this knight is a man
    of more worship than thou art aware of." "Why, who is he?" said the
    knight. "It is King Arthur." Then would he have slain him for dread of
    his wrath, and lifted up his sword to slay him; and therewith Merlin
    cast an enchantment on the knight, so that he fell to the earth in a
    great sleep. Then Merlin took up King Arthur and set him on his horse.
    "Alas!" said Arthur, "what hast thou done, Merlin? hast thou slain
    this good knight by thy crafts?" "Care ye not," said Merlin; "he is
    wholer than ye be. He is only asleep, and will wake in three hours."
    Right so the king and he departed, and went unto an hermit that
    was a good man and a great leech. So the hermit searched all his
    wounds and gave him good salves; so the king was there three days, and
    then were his wounds well amended that he might ride and go, and so
    departed. And as they rode Arthur said, "I have no sword." "No force,"
    said Merlin; "hereby is a sword that shall be yours." So they rode
    till they came to a lake, the which was a fair water and broad, and in
    the midst of the lake Arthur was ware of an arm clothed in white
    samite, that held a fair sword in that hand. "So," said Merlin,
    "yonder is that sword that I spake of." With that they saw a damsel
    going upon the lake. "What damsel is that?" said Arthur. "That is
    the Lady of the Lake," said Merlin; "and within that lake is a rock,
    and therein is as fair a place as any on earth, and richly beseen, and
    this damsel will come to you anon, and then speak ye fair to her and
    she will give thee that sword." Anon withal came the damsel unto
    Arthur and saluted him, and he her again. "Damsel," said Arthur, "what
    sword is that that yonder the arm holdeth above the waves? I would
    it were mine, for I have no sword." "Sir Arthur king," said the
    damsel, "that sword is mine, and if ye will give me a gift when I
    ask it you ye shall have it." "By my faith," said Arthur, "I will give
    ye what gift ye shall ask." "Well," said the damsel, "go you into
    yonder barge and row yourself to the sword, and take it and the
    scabbard with you, and I will ask my gift when I see my time." So
    Arthur and Merlin alighted, and tied their horses to two trees, and so
    they went into the ship, and when they came to the sword that the hand
    held, Arthur took it by the handles, and took it with him. And the arm
    and the hand went under the water.
    Then they returned unto the land and rode forth. And Sir Arthur
    looked on the sword and liked it right well.
    So they rode unto Caerleon, whereof his knights were passing glad.
    And when they heard of his adventures they marvelled that he jeopard
    his person so alone. But all men of worship said it was a fine thing
    to be under such a chieftain as would put his person in adventure as
    other poor knights did.

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