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    Chapter 16

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    Chapter 16
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    WHEN Astolpho had descended to the earth with the precious phial,
    St. John showed him a plant of marvellous virtues, with which he
    told him he had only to touch the eyes of the king of Abyssinia to
    restore him to sight. "That important service," said the saint, "added
    to your having delivered him from the Harpies, will induce him to give
    you an army wherewith to attack the Africans in their rear, and
    force them to return from France to defend their own country." The
    saint also instructed him how to lead his troops in safety across
    the great deserts, where caravans are often overwhelmed with moving
    columns of sand. Astolpho, fortified with ample instructions,
    remounted the Hippogriff, thanked the saint, received his blessing,
    and took his flight down to the level country.
    Keeping the course of the river Nile, he soon arrived at the capital
    of Abyssinia, and rejoined Senapus. The joy of the king was great when
    he heard again the voice of the hero who had delivered him from the
    Harpies. Astolpho touched his eyes with the plant which he had brought
    from the terrestrial paradise, and restored their sight. The king's
    gratitude was unbounded. He begged him to name a reward, promising
    to grant it, whatever it might be. Astolpho asked an army to go to the
    assistance of Charlemagne, and the king not only granted him a hundred
    thousand men, but offered to lead them himself.
    The night before the day appointed for the departure of the
    troops, Astolpho mounted his winged horse, and directed his flight
    towards a mountain, whence the fierce South-wind issues, whose blast
    raises the sands of the Nubian desert, and whirls them onward in
    overwhelming clouds. The paladin, by the advice of St. John, had
    prepared himself with a leather bag, which he placed adroitly, with
    its mouth open, over the vent whence issues this terrible wind. At the
    first dawn of morning the wind rushed from its cavern to resume its
    daily course, and was caught in the bag, and securely tied up.
    Astolpho, delighted with his prize, returned to his army, placed
    himself at their head, and commenced his march. The Abyssinians
    traversed without danger or difficulty those vast fields of sand which
    separate their country from the kingdoms of Northern Africa, for the
    terrible South-wind, taken completely captive, had not force enough
    left to blow out a candle.
    Senapus was distressed that he could not furnish any cavalry, for
    his country, rich in camels and elephants, was destitute of horses.
    This difficulty the saint had foreseen, and had taught Astolpho the
    means of remedying. He now put those means in operation. Having
    reached a place whence he beheld a vast plain and the sea, he chose
    from his troops those who appeared to be the best made and the most
    intelligent. These he caused to be arranged in squadrons at the foot
    of a lofty mountain which bordered the plain, and he himself mounted
    to the summit to carry into effect his great design. Here he found
    vast quantities of fragments of rock and pebbles. These he set rolling
    down the mountain's side, and, wonderful to relate, as they rolled
    they grew in size, made themselves bodies, legs, necks, and long
    faces. Next they began to neigh, to curvet, to scamper on all sides
    over the plain. Some were bay, some roan, some dapple, some
    chestnut. The troops at the foot of the mountain exerted themselves to
    catch these new-created horses, which they easily did, for the miracle
    had been so considerate as to provide all the horses with bridles
    and saddles. Astolpho thus suddenly found himself supplied with an
    excellent corps of cavalry, not fewer (as Archbishop Turpin asserts)
    than eighty thousand strong. With these troops Astolpho reduced all
    the country to subjection, and at last arrived before the walls of
    Agramant's capital city, Biserta, to which he laid siege.

    We must now return to the camp of the Christians, which lay before
    Arles, to which city the Saracens had retired after being defeated
    in a night attack led on by Rinaldo. Agramant here received the
    tidings of the invasion of his country by a fresh enemy, the
    Abyssinians, and learned that Biserta was in danger of falling into
    their hands. He took counsel of his officers, and decided to send an
    embassy to Charles, proposing that the whole quarrel should be
    submitted to the combat of two warriors, one from each side, according
    to the issue of which it should be decided which party should pay
    tribute to the other, and the war should cease. Charlemagne, who had
    not heard of the favorable turn which affairs had taken in Africa,
    readily agreed to this proposal, and Rinaldo was selected on the
    part of the Christians to sustain the combat.
    The Saracens selected Rogero for their champion. Rogero was still in
    the Saracen camp, kept there by honor alone, for his mind had been
    opened to the truth of the Christian faith by the argument of
    Bradamante, and he had resolved to leave the party of the infidels
    on the first favorable opportunity, and to join the Christian side.
    But his honor forbade him to do this while his former friends were
    in distress; and thus he waited for what time might bring forth,
    when he was startled by the announcement that he had been selected
    to uphold the cause of the Saracens against the Christians, and that
    his foe was to be Rinaldo, the brother of Bradamante.
    While Rogero was overwhelmed with this intelligence, Bradamante on
    her side felt the deepest distress at hearing of the proposed
    combat. If Rogero should fall, she felt that no other man living was
    worthy of her love; and if, on the other hand, Heaven should resolve
    to punish France by the death of her chosen champion, Bradamante would
    have to deplore her brother, so dear to her, and be no less completely
    severed from the object of her affections.
    While the fair lady gave herself up to these sad thoughts, the
    sage enchantress, Melissa, suddenly appeared before her. "Fear not, my
    daughter," said she, "I shall find a way to interrupt this combat
    which so distresses you."
    Meanwhile Rinaldo and Rogero prepared their weapons for the
    conflict. Rinaldo had the choice, and decided that it should be on
    foot, and with no weapons but the battle-axe and poniard. The place
    assigned was a plain between the camp of Charlemagne and the walls
    of Arles.
    Hardly had the dawn announced the day appointed for this memorable
    combat, when heralds proceeded from both sides to mark the lists.
    Erelong the African troops were seen to advance from the city,
    Agramant at their head; his brilliant arms adorned in the Moorish
    fashion, his horse a bay, with a white star on his forehead. Rogero
    marched at his side, and some of the greatest warriors of the
    Saracen camp attended him, bearing the various parts of his armor
    and weapons. Charlemagne, on his part, proceeded from his
    intrenchments, ranged his troops in semicircle, and stood surrounded
    by his peers and paladins. Some of them bore portions of the armor
    of Rinaldo, the celebrated Ogier, the Dane, bearing the helmet which
    Rinaldo took from Mambrino. Duke Namo of Bavaria and Salomon of
    Bretagne bore two axes, of equal weight, prepared for the occasion.
    The terms of the combat were then sworn to with the utmost solemnity
    by all parties. It was agreed that, if from either part any attempt
    was made to interrupt the battle, both combatants should turn their
    arms against the party which should be guilty of the interruption; and
    both monarchs assented to the condition, that in such case the
    champion of the offending party should be discharged from his
    allegiance, and at liberty to transfer his arms to the other side.
    When all the preparations were concluded, the monarchs and their
    attendants retired each to his own side, and the champions were left
    alone. The two warriors advanced with measured steps towards each
    other, and met in the middle of the space. They attacked one another
    at the same moment, and the air resounded with the blows they gave.
    Sparks flew from their battle-axes, while the velocity with which they
    managed their weapons astonished the beholders. Rogero, always
    remembering that his antagonist was the brother of his betrothed,
    could not aim a deadly wound; he strove only to ward off those
    levelled against himself. Rinaldo, on the other hand, much as he
    esteemed Rogero, spared not his blows, for he eagerly desired
    victory for his own sake, and for the sake of his country and his
    The Saracens soon perceived that their champion fought feebly, and
    gave not to Rinaldo such blows as he received from him. His
    disadvantage was so marked, that anxiety and shame were manifest on
    the countenance of Agramant. Melissa, one of the most acute
    enchantresses that ever lived, seized this moment to disguise
    herself under the form of Rodomont, that rude and impetuous warrior,
    who had now for some time been absent from the Saracen camp.
    Approaching Agramant, she said, "How could you, my lord, have the
    imprudence of selecting a young man without experience to oppose the
    most redoubtable warrior of France? Surely you must have been
    regardless of the honor of your arms, and of the fate of your
    empire! But it is not too late. Break without delay the agreement
    which is sure to result in your ruin." So saying, she addressed the
    troops who stood near. "Friends," said she, "follow me; under my
    guidance every one of you will be a match for a score of those
    feeble Christians." Agramant, delighted at seeing Rodomont once more
    at his side, gave his consent, and the Saracens, at the instant,
    couched their lances, set spurs to their steeds, and swept down upon
    the French. Melissa, when she saw her work successful, disappeared.
    Rinaldo and Rogero, seeing the truce broken, and the two armies
    engaged in general conflict, stopped their battle; their martial
    fury ceased at once, they joined hands, and resolved to act no more on
    either side until it should be clearly ascertained which party had
    failed to observe its oath. Both renewed their promise to abandon
    forever the party which had been thus false and perjured.
    Meanwhile, the Christians, after the first moment of surprise, met
    the Saracens with courage redoubled by rage at the treachery of
    their foes. Guido the Wild, brother and rival of Rinaldo, Griffon
    and Aquilant, sons of Oliver, and numerous others whose names have
    already been celebrated in our recitals, beat back the assailants, and
    at last, after prodigious slaughter, forced them to take shelter
    within the walls of Arles.

    We will now return to Orlando, whom we last heard of as furiously
    mad, and doing a thousand acts of violence in his senseless rage.
    One day he came to the borders of a stream which intercepted his
    course. He swam across it, for he could swim like an otter, and on the
    other side saw a peasant watering his horse. He seized the animal,
    in spite of the resistance of the peasant, and rode it with furious
    speed till he arrived at the sea-coast, where Spain is divided from
    Africa by only a narrow strait. At the moment of his arrival, a vessel
    had just put off to cross the strait. She was full of people who, with
    glass in hand, seemed to be taking a merry farewell of the land,
    wafted by a favorable breeze.
    The frantic Orlando cried out to them to stop and take him in; but
    they, having no desire to admit a madman to their company, paid him no
    attention. The paladin thought this behavior very uncivil; and by
    force of blows made his horse carry him into the water in pursuit of
    the ship. The wretched animal soon had only his head above water;
    but as Orlando urged him forward, nothing was left for the poor
    beast but either to die or swim over to Africa.
    Already Orlando had lost sight of the bark; distance and the swell
    of the sea completely hid it from his sight. He continued to press his
    horse forward, till at last it could struggle no more, and sunk
    beneath him. Orlando, nowise concerned, stretched out his nervous
    arms, puffing the salt water from before his mouth, and carried his
    head above the waves. Fortunately they were not rough, scarce a breath
    of wind agitated the surface; otherwise, the invincible Orlando
    would then have met his death. But fortune, which it is said favors
    fools, delivered him from this danger, and landed him safe on the
    shore of Ceuta. Here he rambled along the shore till he came to
    where the black army of Astolpho held its camp.
    Now it happened, just before this time, that a vessel filled with
    prisoners which Rodomont had taken at the bridge had arrived, and, not
    knowing of the presence of the Abyssinian army, had sailed right
    into port, where of course the prisoners and their captors changed
    places, the former being set at liberty and received with all joy, the
    latter sent to serve in the galleys. Astolpho thus found himself
    surrounded with Christian knights, and he and his friends were
    exchanging greetings and felicitations, when a noise was heard in
    the camp, and seemed to increase every moment.
    Astolpho and his friends seized their weapons, mounted their horses,
    and rode to the quarter whence the noise proceeded. Imagine their
    astonishment when they saw that the tumult was caused by a single man,
    perfectly naked, and browned with dirt and exposure, but of a force
    and fury so terrible that he overturned all that offered to lay
    hands on him.
    Astolpho, Dudon, Oliver, and Florismart gazed at him with amazement.
    It was with difficulty they knew him. Astolpho, who had been warned of
    his condition by his holy monitor, was the first to recognize him.
    As the paladins closed round Orlando, the madman dealt one and another
    a blow of his fist, which, if they had not been in armor, or he had
    had any weapon, would probably have despatched them; as it was,
    Dudon and Astolpho measured their length on the sand. But Florismart
    seized him from behind, Sansonnet and another grasped his legs, and at
    last they succeeded in securing him with ropes. They took him to the
    water-side and washed him well, and then Astolpho, having first
    bandaged his mouth so that he could not breathe except through his
    nose, brought the precious phial, uncorked it, and placed it
    adroitly under his nostrils, when the good Orlando took it all up in
    one breath. O marvellous prodigy! The paladin recovered in an
    instant all his intelligence. He felt like one who had awakened from a
    painful dream, in which he had believed that monsters were about to
    tear him to pieces. He seemed prostrated, silent, and abashed.
    Florismart, Oliver, and Astolpho stood gazing upon him, while he
    turned his eyes around and on himself. He seemed surprised to find
    himself naked, bound, and stretched on the sea-shore. After a few
    moments he recognized his friends, and spoke to them in a tone so
    tender that they hastened to unbind him, and to supply him with
    garments. Then they exerted themselves to console him, to diminish the
    weight with which his spirits were oppressed, and to make him forget
    the wretched condition into which he had been sunk.
    Orlando, in recovering his reason, found himself also delivered from
    his insane attachment to the queen of Cathay. His heart felt now no
    further influenced by the recollection of her than to be moved with an
    ardent desire to retrieve his fame by some distinguished exploit.
    Astolpho would gladly have yielded to him the chief command of the
    army, but Orlando would not take from the friend to whom he owed so
    much the glory of the campaign; but in everything the two paladins
    acted in concert, and united their counsels. They proposed to make a
    general assault on the city of Biserta, and were only waiting a
    favorable moment, when their plan was interrupted by new events.
    Agramant, after the bloody battle which followed the infraction of
    the truce, found himself so weak that he saw it was in vain to attempt
    to remain in France. So, in concert with Sobrino, the bravest and most
    trusted of his chiefs, he embarked to return to his own country,
    having previously sent off his few remaining troops in the same
    direction. The vessel which carried Agramant and Sobrino approached
    the shore where the army of Astolpho lay encamped before Biserta, and,
    having discovered this fact before it was too late, the king commanded
    the pilot to steer eastward, with a view to seek protection of the
    king of Egypt. But the weather becoming rough, he consented to the
    advice of his companions, and sought harbor in an island which lies
    between Sicily and Africa. There he found Gradasso, the warlike king
    of Sericane, who had come to France to possess himself of the horse
    Bayard and the sword Durindana; and, having procured both these
    prizes, was returning to his own country.
    The two kings, who had been companions in arms under the walls of
    Paris, embraced one another affectionately. Gradasso learned with
    regret the reverses of Agramant, and offered him his troops and his
    person. He strongly deprecated resorting to Egypt for aid. "Remember
    the great Pompey," said he, "and shun that fatal shore. My plan," he
    continued, "is this: I mean to challenge Orlando to single combat.
    Possessed of such a sword and steed as mine, if he were made of
    steel or bronze, he could not escape me. He being removed, there
    will be no difficulty in driving back the Abyssinians. We will rouse
    against them the Moslem nations from the other side of the Nile, the
    Arabians, Persians, and Chaldeans, who will soon make Senapus recall
    his army to defend his own territories."
    Agramant approved this advice except in one particular. "It is for
    me," said he, "to combat Orlando; I cannot with honor devolve that
    duty on another."
    "Let us adopt a third course," said the aged warrior Sobrino. "I
    would not willingly remain a simple spectator of such a contest. Let
    us send three squires to the shore of Africa to challenge Orlando
    and any two of his companions in arms to meet us three in this
    island of Lampedusa."
    This counsel was adopted; the three squires sped on their way; and
    now presented themselves, and rehearsed their message to the Christian
    Orlando was delighted, and rewarded the squires with rich gifts.
    He had already resolved to seek Gradasso and compel him to restore
    Durindana, which he had learned was in his possession. For his two
    companions, the Count chose his faithful friend Florismart and his
    cousin Oliver.
    The three warriors embarked, and sailing with a favorable wind,
    the second morning showed them, on their right, the island where
    this important battle was to be fought. Orlando and his two
    companions, having landed, pitched their tent. Agramant had placed his
    Next morning, as soon as Aurora brightened the edges of the horizon,
    the warriors of both parties armed themselves and mounted their
    horses. They took their positions, face to face, lowered their lances,
    placed them in rest, clapped spurs to their horses, and flew to the
    charge. Orlando met the charge of Gradasso. The paladin was unmoved,
    but his horse could not sustain the terrible shock of Bayard. He
    recoiled, staggered, and fell some paces behind. Orlando tried to
    raise him, but, finding his efforts unavailing, seized his shield, and
    drew his famous Balisardo. Meanwhile Agramant and the brave Oliver
    gained no advantage, one or the other; but Florismart unhorsed the
    King Sobrino. Having brought his foe to the ground, he would not
    pursue his victory, but hastened to attack Gradasso, who had
    overthrown Orlando. Seeing him thus engaged, Orlando would not
    interfere, but ran with sword upraised upon Sobrino, and with one blow
    deprived him of sense and motion. Believing him dead, he next turned
    to aid his beloved Florismart. That brave paladin, neither in horse
    nor arm equal to his antagonist, could but parry and evade the blows
    of the terrible Durindana. Orlando, eager to succor him, was delayed
    for a moment in securing and mounting the horse of the King Sobrino.
    It was but an instant, and with sword upraised, he rushed upon
    Gradasso; who, noways disconcerted at the onset of this second foe,
    shouted his defiance, and thrust at him with his sword, but, having
    miscalculated the distance, scarcely reached him, and failed to pierce
    his mail. Orlando, in return, dealt him a blow with Balisardo, which
    wounded as it fell, face, breast, and thigh, and, if he had been a
    little nearer, would have cleft him in twain. Sobrino, by this time
    recovered from his swoon, though severely wounded, raised himself on
    his legs, and looked to see how he might aid his friends, Observing
    Agramant hard pressed by Oliver, he thrust his sword into the bowels
    of the latter's horse, which fell, and bore down his master,
    entangling his leg as he fell, so that Oliver could not extricate
    himself. Florismart saw the danger of his friend, and ran upon Sobrino
    with his horse, overthrew him, and then turned to defend himself
    from Agramant. They were not unequally matched, for though Agramant,
    mounted on Brigliadoro, had an advantage over Florismart, whose
    horse was but indifferent, yet Agramant had received a serious wound
    in his encounter with Oliver.
    Nothing could exceed the fury of the encounter between Orlando and
    Gradasso. Durindana, in the hands of Gradasso, clove asunder
    whatever it struck; but such was the skill of Orlando, who perfectly
    knew the danger to which he was exposed from a stroke of that
    weapon, it had not yet struck him in such a way as to inflict a wound.
    Meanwhile, Gradasso was bleeding from many wounds, and his rage and
    incaution increased every moment. In his desperation, he lifted
    Durindana with both hands, and struck so terrible a blow full on the
    helmet of Orlando, that for a moment it stunned the paladin. He
    dropped the reins, and his frightened horse scoured with him over
    the plain. Gradasso turned to pursue him, but at that moment saw
    Florismart in the very act of striking a fatal blow at Agramant,
    whom he had unhorsed. While Florismart was wholly intent upon
    completing his victory, Gradasso plunged his sword into his side.
    Florismart fell from his horse, and bathed the plain with his blood.
    Orlando recovered himself just in time to see the deed. Whether rage
    or grief predominated in his breast, I cannot tell, but, seizing
    Balisardo with fury, his first blow fell upon Agramant, who was
    nearest to him, and smote his head from his shoulders. At this
    sight, Gradasso, for the first time, felt his courage sink, and a dark
    presentiment of death come over him. He hardly stood on his defence
    when Orlando cast himself upon him, and gave him a fatal thrust. The
    sword penetrated his ribs, and came out a palm's breadth on the
    other side of his body.
    Thus fell beneath the sword of the most illustrious paladin of
    France the bravest warrior of the Saracen host. Orlando then, as if
    despising his victory, leaped lightly to the ground, and ran to his
    dear friend Florismart, embraced him, and bathed him with his tears.
    Florismart still breathed. He could even command his voice to utter
    a few parting words: "Dear friend, do not forget me,- give me your
    prayers,- and oh! be a brother to Flordelis." He died in uttering
    her name.
    After a few moments given to grief, Orlando turned to look for his
    other companion and his late foes. Oliver lay oppressed with the
    weight of his horse, from which he had in vain struggled to liberate
    himself. Orlando extricated him with difficulty; he then raised
    Sobrino from the earth, and committed him to his squire, treating
    him as gently as if he had been his own brother. For this terrible
    warrior was the most generous of men to a fallen foe. He took Bayard
    and Brigliadoro, with the arms of the conquered knights; their
    bodies and their other spoils he remitted to their attendants.
    But who can tell the grief of Flordelis when she saw the warriors
    return, and found not Florismart as usual after absence hasten to
    her side. She knew by the aspect of the others that her lord was
    slain. At the thought, and before the question could pass her lips,
    she fell senseless upon the ground. When life returned, and she
    learned the truth of her worst fears, she bitterly upbraided herself
    that she had let him depart without her. "I might have saved him by
    a single cry when his enemy dealt him that treacherous blow, or I
    might have thrown myself between, and given my worthless life for his.
    Or if no more, I might have heard his last words, I might have given
    him a last kiss." So she lamented, and could not be comforted.

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