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    The Subterranean Brotherhood

    by Julian Hawthorne

    Book Description

    Julian Hawthorne (1846-1934) followed in the footsteps of his father, the famous novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne and became a prolific American author and journalist. He wrote numerous poems, novels, short stories, mystery/detective fiction, essays, travel books, biographies and histories. As a journalist he reported on the Indian Famine for Cosmopolitian magazine, and the Spanish-American War for the New York Journal. He was born in Boston, and entered Harvard in 1863, but did not graduate. He studied civil engineering in America and Germany, was engineer in the New York City Dock Department under General McClellan (1870-72), spent 10 years abroad, and on his return edited his father's unfinished Dr. Grimshawe's Secret (1883). While in Europe he wrote the novels: Bressant (1873); Idolatry (1874); Garth (1874); Archibald Malmaison (1879); and Sebastian Strome (1880). He wrote many novels after his return. In 1889 there were reports that Hawthorne was one of several writers who had, under the name of "Arthur Richmond," published in the North American Review devastating attacks on President Grover Cleveland and other leading Americans. Hawthorne denied the reports. In 1908, Hawthorne's old Harvard friend William J. Morton (son of pioneer anesthesiologist William T.G. Morton) invited Hawthorne to join in promoting some newly created mining companies in Ontario, Canada. Hawthorne made his writing and his family name central to the stock-selling campaigns. After complaints from shareholders, both Morton and Hawthorne were tried in New York City for mail fraud, and convicted in 1913. Hawthorne was able to sell some three and a half million shares of stock in a nonexistent silver mine and servedone year in the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary. Upon his release from prison, he wrote The Subterranean Brotherhood (1914), a nonfiction work calling for an immediate end to incarceration of criminals. Hawthorne argued, based on his own experience, that incarceration was inhumane, and should be replaced by moral suasion. Of the fraud with which he was charged he always maintained his innocence.

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