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    "Associate with well-mannered persons and your manners will improve. Run around with decent folk and your own decent instincts will be strengthened."

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    by Edgar Allan Poe
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    Hey, diddle diddle
    The cat and the fiddle

    SINCE the world began there have been two Jeremys. The one wrote a
    Jeremiad about usury, and was called Jeremy Bentham. He has been much
    admired by Mr. John Neal, and was a great man in a small way. The
    other gave name to the most important of the Exact Sciences, and was
    a great man in a great way -- I may say, indeed, in the very greatest
    of ways.

    Diddling -- or the abstract idea conveyed by the verb to diddle -- is
    sufficiently well understood. Yet the fact, the deed, the thing
    diddling, is somewhat difficult to define. We may get, however, at a
    tolerably distinct conception of the matter in hand, by defining- not
    the thing, diddling, in itself -- but man, as an animal that diddles.
    Had Plato but hit upon this, he would have been spared the affront of
    the picked chicken.

    Very pertinently it was demanded of Plato, why a picked chicken,
    which was clearly "a biped without feathers," was not, according to
    his own definition, a man? But I am not to be bothered by any similar
    query. Man is an animal that diddles, and there is no animal that
    diddles but man. It will take an entire hen-coop of picked chickens
    to get over that.

    What constitutes the essence, the nare, the principle of diddling is,
    in fact, peculiar to the class of creatures that wear coats and
    pantaloons. A crow thieves; a fox cheats; a weasel outwits; a man
    diddles. To diddle is his destiny. "Man was made to mourn," says the
    poet. But not so: -- he was made to diddle. This is his aim -- his
    object- his end. And for this reason when a man's diddled we say he's

    Diddling, rightly considered, is a compound, of which the ingredients
    are minuteness, interest, perseverance, ingenuity, audacity,
    nonchalance, originality, impertinence, and grin.

    Minuteness: -- Your diddler is minute. His operations are upon a
    small scale. His business is retail, for cash, or approved paper at
    sight. Should he ever be tempted into magnificent speculation, he
    then, at once, loses his distinctive features, and becomes what we
    term "financier." This latter word conveys the diddling idea in every
    respect except that of magnitude. A diddler may thus be regarded as a
    banker in petto -- a "financial operation," as a diddle at
    Brobdignag. The one is to the other, as Homer to "Flaccus" -- as a
    Mastodon to a mouse -- as the tail of a comet to that of a pig.

    Interest: -- Your diddler is guided by self-interest. He scorns to
    diddle for the mere sake of the diddle. He has an object in view- his
    pocket -- and yours. He regards always the main chance. He looks to
    Number One. You are Number Two, and must look to yourself.

    Perseverance: -- Your diddler perseveres. He is not readily
    discouraged. Should even the banks break, he cares nothing about it.
    He steadily pursues his end, and

    Ut canis a corio nunquam absterrebitur uncto. so he never lets go of
    his game.

    Ingenuity: -- Your diddler is ingenious. He has constructiveness
    large. He understands plot. He invents and circumvents. Were he not
    Alexander he would be Diogenes. Were he not a diddler, he would be a
    maker of patent rat-traps or an angler for trout.

    Audacity: -- Your diddler is audacious. -- He is a bold man. He
    carries the war into Africa. He conquers all by assault. He would not
    fear the daggers of Frey Herren. With a little more prudence Dick
    Turpin would have made a good diddler; with a trifle less blarney,
    Daniel O'Connell; with a pound or two more brains Charles the

    Nonchalance: -- Your diddler is nonchalant. He is not at all nervous.
    He never had any nerves. He is never seduced into a flurry. He is
    never put out -- unless put out of doors. He is cool -- cool as a
    cucumber. He is calm -- "calm as a smile from Lady Bury." He is easy-
    easy as an old glove, or the damsels of ancient Baiae.

    Originality: -- Your diddler is original -- conscientiously so. His
    thoughts are his own. He would scorn to employ those of another. A
    stale trick is his aversion. He would return a purse, I am sure, upon
    discovering that he had obtained it by an unoriginal diddle.

    Impertinence. -- Your diddler is impertinent. He swaggers. He sets
    his arms a-kimbo. He thrusts his hands in his trowsers' pockets. He
    sneers in your face. He treads on your corns. He eats your dinner, he
    drinks your wine, he borrows your money, he pulls your nose, he kicks
    your poodle, and he kisses your wife.

    Grin: -- Your true diddler winds up all with a grin. But this nobody
    sees but himself. He grins when his daily work is done -- when his
    allotted labors are accomplished -- at night in his own closet, and
    altogether for his own private entertainment. He goes home. He locks
    his door. He divests himself of his clothes. He puts out his candle.
    He gets into bed. He places his head upon the pillow. All this done,
    and your diddler grins. This is no hypothesis. It is a matter of
    course. I reason a priori, and a diddle would be no diddle without a

    The origin of the diddle is referrable to the infancy of the Human
    Race. Perhaps the first diddler was Adam. At all events, we can trace
    the science back to a very remote period of antiquity. The moderns,
    however, have brought it to a perfection never dreamed of by our
    thick-headed progenitors. Without pausing to speak of the "old saws,"
    therefore, I shall content myself with a compendious account of some
    of the more "modern instances."

    A very good diddle is this. A housekeeper in want of a sofa, for
    instance, is seen to go in and out of several cabinet warehouses. At
    length she arrives at one offering an excellent variety. She is
    accosted, and invited to enter, by a polite and voluble individual at
    the door. She finds a sofa well adapted to her views, and upon
    inquiring the price, is surprised and delighted to hear a sum named
    at least twenty per cent. lower than her expectations. She hastens to
    make the purchase, gets a bill and receipt, leaves her address, with
    a request that the article be sent home as speedily as possible, and
    retires amid a profusion of bows from the shopkeeper. The night
    arrives and no sofa. A servant is sent to make inquiry about the
    delay. The whole transaction is denied. No sofa has been sold -- no
    money received -- except by the diddler, who played shop-keeper for
    the nonce.

    Our cabinet warehouses are left entirely unattended, and thus afford
    every facility for a trick of this kind. Visiters enter, look at
    furniture, and depart unheeded and unseen. Should any one wish to
    purchase, or to inquire the price of an article, a bell is at hand,
    and this is considered amply sufficient.

    Again, quite a respectable diddle is this. A well-dressed individual
    enters a shop, makes a purchase to the value of a dollar; finds, much
    to his vexation, that he has left his pocket-book in another coat
    pocket; and so says to the shopkeeper-

    "My dear sir, never mind; just oblige me, will you, by sending the
    bundle home? But stay! I really believe that I have nothing less than
    a five dollar bill, even there. However, you can send four dollars in
    change with the bundle, you know."

    "Very good, sir," replies the shop-keeper, who entertains, at once, a
    lofty opinion of the high-mindedness of his customer. "I know
    fellows," he says to himself, "who would just have put the goods
    under their arm, and walked off with a promise to call and pay the
    dollar as they came by in the afternoon."

    A boy is sent with the parcel and change. On the route, quite
    accidentally, he is met by the purchaser, who exclaims:

    "Ah! This is my bundle, I see -- I thought you had been home with it,
    long ago. Well, go on! My wife, Mrs. Trotter, will give you the five
    dollars -- I left instructions with her to that effect. The change
    you might as well give to me -- I shall want some silver for the Post
    Office. Very good! One, two, is this a good quarter?- three, four --
    quite right! Say to Mrs. Trotter that you met me, and be sure now and
    do not loiter on the way."

    The boy doesn't loiter at all -- but he is a very long time in
    getting back from his errand -- for no lady of the precise name of
    Mrs. Trotter is to be discovered. He consoles himself, however, that
    he has not been such a fool as to leave the goods without the money,
    and re-entering his shop with a self-satisfied air, feels sensibly
    hurt and indignant when his master asks him what has become of the

    A very simple diddle, indeed, is this. The captain of a ship, which
    is about to sail, is presented by an official looking person with an
    unusually moderate bill of city charges. Glad to get off so easily,
    and confused by a hundred duties pressing upon him all at once, he
    discharges the claim forthwith. In about fifteen minutes, another and
    less reasonable bill is handed him by one who soon makes it evident
    that the first collector was a diddler, and the original collection a

    And here, too, is a somewhat similar thing. A steamboat is casting
    loose from the wharf. A traveller, portmanteau in hand, is discovered
    running toward the wharf, at full speed. Suddenly, he makes a dead
    halt, stoops, and picks up something from the ground in a very
    agitated manner. It is a pocket-book, and -- "Has any gentleman lost
    a pocketbook?" he cries. No one can say that he has exactly lost a
    pocket-book; but a great excitement ensues, when the treasure trove
    is found to be of value. The boat, however, must not be detained.

    "Time and tide wait for no man," says the captain.

    "For God's sake, stay only a few minutes," says the finder of the
    book -- "the true claimant will presently appear."

    "Can't wait!" replies the man in authority; "cast off there, d'ye

    "What am I to do?" asks the finder, in great tribulation. "I am about
    to leave the country for some years, and I cannot conscientiously
    retain this large amount in my possession. I beg your pardon, sir,"
    [here he addresses a gentleman on shore,] "but you have the air of an
    honest man. Will you confer upon me the favor of taking charge of
    this pocket-book -- I know I can trust you -- and of advertising it?
    The notes, you see, amount to a very considerable sum. The owner
    will, no doubt, insist upon rewarding you for your trouble-

    "Me! -- no, you! -- it was you who found the book."

    "Well, if you must have it so -- I will take a small reward -- just
    to satisfy your scruples. Let me see -- why these notes are all
    hundreds- bless my soul! a hundred is too much to take -- fifty would
    be quite enough, I am sure-

    "Cast off there!" says the captain.

    "But then I have no change for a hundred, and upon the whole, you had

    "Cast off there!" says the captain.

    "Never mind!" cries the gentleman on shore, who has been examining
    his own pocket-book for the last minute or so -- "never mind! I can
    fix it -- here is a fifty on the Bank of North America -- throw the

    And the over-conscientious finder takes the fifty with marked
    reluctance, and throws the gentleman the book, as desired, while the
    steamboat fumes and fizzes on her way. In about half an hour after
    her departure, the "large amount" is seen to be a "counterfeit
    presentment," and the whole thing a capital diddle.

    A bold diddle is this. A camp-meeting, or something similar, is to be
    held at a certain spot which is accessible only by means of a free
    bridge. A diddler stations himself upon this bridge, respectfully
    informs all passers by of the new county law, which establishes a
    toll of one cent for foot passengers, two for horses and donkeys, and
    so forth, and so forth. Some grumble but all submit, and the diddler
    goes home a wealthier man by some fifty or sixty dollars well earned.
    This taking a toll from a great crowd of people is an excessively
    troublesome thing.

    A neat diddle is this. A friend holds one of the diddler's promises
    to pay, filled up and signed in due form, upon the ordinary blanks
    printed in red ink. The diddler purchases one or two dozen of these
    blanks, and every day dips one of them in his soup, makes his dog
    jump for it, and finally gives it to him as a bonne bouche. The note
    arriving at maturity, the diddler, with the diddler's dog, calls upon
    the friend, and the promise to pay is made the topic of discussion.
    The friend produces it from his escritoire, and is in the act of
    reaching it to the diddler, when up jumps the diddler's dog and
    devours it forthwith. The diddler is not only surprised but vexed and
    incensed at the absurd behavior of his dog, and expresses his entire
    readiness to cancel the obligation at any moment when the evidence of
    the obligation shall be forthcoming.

    A very mean diddle is this. A lady is insulted in the street by a
    diddler's accomplice. The diddler himself flies to her assistance,
    and, giving his friend a comfortable thrashing, insists upon
    attending the lady to her own door. He bows, with his hand upon his
    heart, and most respectfully bids her adieu. She entreats him, as her
    deliverer, to walk in and be introduced to her big brother and her
    papa. With a sigh, he declines to do so. "Is there no way, then,
    sir," she murmurs, "in which I may be permitted to testify my

    "Why, yes, madam, there is. Will you be kind enough to lend me a
    couple of shillings?"

    In the first excitement of the moment the lady decides upon fainting
    outright. Upon second thought, however, she opens her purse-strings
    and delivers the specie. Now this, I say, is a diddle minute -- for
    one entire moiety of the sum borrowed has to be paid to the gentleman
    who had the trouble of performing the insult, and who had then to
    stand still and be thrashed for performing it.

    Rather a small but still a scientific diddle is this. The diddler
    approaches the bar of a tavern, and demands a couple of twists of
    tobacco. These are handed to him, when, having slightly examined
    them, he says:

    "I don't much like this tobacco. Here, take it back, and give me a
    glass of brandy and water in its place." The brandy and water is
    furnished and imbibed, and the diddler makes his way to the door. But
    the voice of the tavern-keeper arrests him.

    "I believe, sir, you have forgotten to pay for your brandy and

    "Pay for my brandy and water! -- didn't I give you the tobacco for
    the brandy and water? What more would you have?"

    "But, sir, if you please, I don't remember that you paid me for the

    "What do you mean by that, you scoundrel? -- Didn't I give you back
    your tobacco? Isn't that your tobacco lying there? Do you expect me
    to pay for what I did not take?"

    "But, sir," says the publican, now rather at a loss what to say, "but

    "But me no buts, sir," interrupts the diddler, apparently in very
    high dudgeon, and slamming the door after him, as he makes his
    escape. -- "But me no buts, sir, and none of your tricks upon

    Here again is a very clever diddle, of which the simplicity is not
    its least recommendation. A purse, or pocket-book, being really lost,
    the loser inserts in one of the daily papers of a large city a fully
    descriptive advertisement.

    Whereupon our diddler copies the facts of this advertisement, with a
    change of heading, of general phraseology and address. The original,
    for instance, is long, and verbose, is headed "A Pocket-Book Lost!"
    and requires the treasure, when found, to be left at No. 1 Tom
    Street. The copy is brief, and being headed with "Lost" only,
    indicates No. 2 Dick, or No. 3 Harry Street, as the locality at which
    the owner may be seen. Moreover, it is inserted in at least five or
    six of the daily papers of the day, while in point of time, it makes
    its appearance only a few hours after the original. Should it be read
    by the loser of the purse, he would hardly suspect it to have any
    reference to his own misfortune. But, of course, the chances are five
    or six to one, that the finder will repair to the address given by
    the diddler, rather than to that pointed out by the rightful
    proprietor. The former pays the reward, pockets the treasure and

    Quite an analogous diddle is this. A lady of ton has dropped, some
    where in the street, a diamond ring of very unusual value. For its
    recovery, she offers some forty or fifty dollars reward -- giving, in
    her advertisement, a very minute description of the gem, and of its
    settings, and declaring that, on its restoration at No. so and so, in
    such and such Avenue, the reward would be paid instanter, without a
    single question being asked. During the lady's absence from home, a
    day or two afterwards, a ring is heard at the door of No. so and so,
    in such and such Avenue; a servant appears; the lady of the house is
    asked for and is declared to be out, at which astounding information,
    the visitor expresses the most poignant regret. His business is of
    importance and concerns the lady herself. In fact, he had the good
    fortune to find her diamond ring. But perhaps it would be as well
    that he should call again. "By no means!" says the servant; and "By
    no means!" says the lady's sister and the lady's sister-in-law, who
    are summoned forthwith. The ring is clamorously identified, the
    reward is paid, and the finder nearly thrust out of doors. The lady
    returns and expresses some little dissatisfaction with her sister and
    sister-in-law, because they happen to have paid forty or fifty
    dollars for a fac-simile of her diamond ring -- a fac-simile made out
    of real pinch-beck and unquestionable paste.

    But as there is really no end to diddling, so there would be none to
    this essay, were I even to hint at half the variations, or
    inflections, of which this science is susceptible. I must bring this
    paper, perforce, to a conclusion, and this I cannot do better than by
    a summary notice of a very decent, but rather elaborate diddle, of
    which our own city was made the theatre, not very long ago, and which
    was subsequently repeated with success, in other still more verdant
    localities of the Union. A middle-aged gentleman arrives in town from
    parts unknown. He is remarkably precise, cautious, staid, and
    deliberate in his demeanor. His dress is scrupulously neat, but
    plain, unostentatious. He wears a white cravat, an ample waistcoat,
    made with an eye to comfort alone; thick-soled cosy-looking shoes,
    and pantaloons without straps. He has the whole air, in fact, of your
    well-to-do, sober-sided, exact, and respectable "man of business,"
    Par excellence -- one of the stern and outwardly hard, internally
    soft, sort of people that we see in the crack high comedies --
    fellows whose words are so many bonds, and who are noted for giving
    away guineas, in charity, with the one hand, while, in the way of
    mere bargain, they exact the uttermost fraction of a farthing with
    the other.

    He makes much ado before he can get suited with a boarding house. He
    dislikes children. He has been accustomed to quiet. His habits are
    methodical -- and then he would prefer getting into a private and
    respectable small family, piously inclined. Terms, however, are no
    object -- only he must insist upon settling his bill on the first of
    every month, (it is now the second) and begs his landlady, when he
    finally obtains one to his mind, not on any account to forget his
    instructions upon this point -- but to send in a bill, and receipt,
    precisely at ten o'clock, on the first day of every month, and under
    no circumstances to put it off to the second.

    These arrangements made, our man of business rents an office in a
    reputable rather than a fashionable quarter of the town. There is
    nothing he more despises than pretense. "Where there is much show,"
    he says, "there is seldom any thing very solid behind" -- an
    observation which so profoundly impresses his landlady's fancy, that
    she makes a pencil memorandum of it forthwith, in her great family
    Bible, on the broad margin of the Proverbs of Solomon.

    The next step is to advertise, after some such fashion as this, in
    the principal business six-pennies of the city -- the pennies are
    eschewed as not "respectable" -- and as demanding payment for all
    advertisements in advance. Our man of business holds it as a point of
    his faith that work should never be paid for until done.

    "WANTED -- The advertisers, being about to commence extensive
    business operations in this city, will require the services of three
    or four intelligent and competent clerks, to whom a liberal salary
    will be paid. The very best recommendations, not so much for
    capacity, as for integrity, will be expected. Indeed, as the duties
    to be performed involve high responsibilities, and large amounts of
    money must necessarily pass through the hands of those engaged, it is
    deemed advisable to demand a deposit of fifty dollars from each clerk
    employed. No person need apply, therefore, who is not prepared to
    leave this sum in the possession of the advertisers, and who cannot
    furnish the most satisfactory testimonials of morality. Young
    gentlemen piously inclined will be preferred. Application should be
    made between the hours of ten and eleven A. M., and four and five P.
    M., of Messrs.

    "Bogs, Hogs Logs, Frogs & Co.,

    "No. 110 Dog Street"

    By the thirty-first day of the month, this advertisement has brought
    to the office of Messrs. Bogs, Hogs, Logs, Frogs, and Company, some
    fifteen or twenty young gentlemen piously inclined. But our man of
    business is in no hurry to conclude a contract with any -- no man of
    business is ever precipitate -- and it is not until the most rigid
    catechism in respect to the piety of each young gentleman's
    inclination, that his services are engaged and his fifty dollars
    receipted for, just by way of proper precaution, on the part of the
    respectable firm of Bogs, Hogs, Logs, Frogs, and Company. On the
    morning of the first day of the next month, the landlady does not
    present her bill, according to promise -- a piece of neglect for
    which the comfortable head of the house ending in ogs would no doubt
    have chided her severely, could he have been prevailed upon to remain
    in town a day or two for that purpose.

    As it is, the constables have had a sad time of it, running hither
    and thither, and all they can do is to declare the man of business
    most emphatically, a "hen knee high" -- by which some persons imagine
    them to imply that, in fact, he is n. e. i. -- by which again the
    very classical phrase non est inventus, is supposed to be understood.
    In the meantime the young gentlemen, one and all, are somewhat less
    piously inclined than before, while the landlady purchases a
    shilling's worth of the Indian rubber, and very carefully obliterates
    the pencil memorandum that some fool has made in her great family
    Bible, on the broad margin of the Proverbs of Solomon.
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