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    Ivan the Fool

    by Leo Tolstoy
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    In a certain kingdom there lived a rich peasant, who had three
    sons--Simeon (a soldier), Tarras-Briukhan (fat man), and Ivan (a
    fool)--and one daughter, Milania, born dumb. Simeon went to war, to
    serve the Czar; Tarras went to a city and became a merchant; and Ivan,
    with his sister, remained at home to work on the farm.

    For his valiant service in the army, Simeon received an estate with high
    rank, and married a noble's daughter. Besides his large pay, he was in
    receipt of a handsome income from his estate; yet he was unable to make
    ends meet. What the husband saved, the wife wasted in extravagance. One
    day Simeon went to the estate to collect his income, when the steward
    informed him that there was no income, saying:

    "We have neither horses, cows, fishing-nets, nor implements; it is
    necessary first to buy everything, and then to look for income."

    Simeon thereupon went to his father and said:

    "You are rich, batiushka [little father], but you have given nothing
    to me. Give me one-third of what you possess as my share, and I will
    transfer it to my estate."

    The old man replied: "You did not help to bring prosperity to our
    household. For what reason, then, should you now demand the third part
    of everything? It would be unjust to Ivan and his sister."

    "Yes," said Simeon; "but he is a fool, and she was born dumb. What need
    have they of anything?"

    "See what Ivan will say."

    Ivan's reply was: "Well, let him take his share."

    Simeon took the portion allotted to him, and went again to serve in the

    Tarras also met with success. He became rich and married a merchant's
    daughter, but even this failed to satisfy his desires, and he also went
    to his father and said, "Give me my share."

    The old man, however, refused to comply with his request, saying: "You
    had no hand in the accumulation of our property, and what our household
    contains is the result of Ivan's hard work. It would be unjust," he
    repeated, "to Ivan and his sister."

    Tarras replied: "But he does not need it. He is a fool, and cannot
    marry, for no one will have him; and sister does not require anything,
    for she was born dumb." Turning then to Ivan he continued: "Give me half
    the grain you have, and I will not touch the implements or fishing-nets;
    and from the cattle I will take only the dark mare, as she is not fit to

    Ivan laughed and said: "Well, I will go and arrange matters so that
    Tarras may have his share," whereupon Tarras took the brown mare with
    the grain to town, leaving Ivan with one old horse to work on as before
    and support his father, mother, and sister.


    It was disappointing to the Stary Tchert (Old Devil) that the brothers
    did not quarrel over the division of the property, and that they
    separated peacefully; and he cried out, calling his three small devils

    "See here," said he, "there are living three brothers--Simeon the
    soldier, Tarras-Briukhan, and Ivan the Fool. It is necessary that
    they should quarrel. Now they live peacefully, and enjoy each other's
    hospitality. The Fool spoiled all my plans. Now you three go and work
    with them in such a manner that they will be ready to tear each other's
    eyes out. Can you do this?"

    "We can," they replied.

    "How will you accomplish it?"

    "In this way: We will first ruin them to such an extent that they will
    have nothing to eat, and we will then gather them together in one place
    where we are sure that they will fight."

    "Very well; I see you understand your business. Go, and do not return to
    me until you have created a feud between the three brothers--or I will
    skin you alive."

    The three small devils went to a swamp to consult as to the best means
    of accomplishing their mission. They disputed for a long time--each
    one wanting the easiest part of the work--and not being able to agree,
    concluded to draw lots; by which it was decided that the one who was
    first finished had to come and help the others. This agreement being
    entered into, they appointed a time when they were again to meet in the
    swamp--to find out who was through and who needed assistance.

    The time having arrived, the young devils met in the swamp as agreed,
    when each related his experience. The first, who went to Simeon, said:
    "I have succeeded in my undertaking, and to-morrow Simeon returns to his

    His comrades, eager for particulars, inquired how he had done it.

    "Well," he began, "the first thing I did was to blow some courage into
    his veins, and, on the strength of it, Simeon went to the Czar and
    offered to conquer the whole world for him. The Emperor made him
    commander-in-chief of the forces, and sent him with an army to fight the
    Viceroy of India. Having started on their mission of conquest, they were
    unaware that I, following in their wake, had wet all their powder.
    I also went to the Indian ruler and showed him how I could create
    numberless soldiers from straw.

    "Simeon's army, seeing that they were surrounded by such a vast number of
    Indian warriors of my creation, became frightened, and Simeon commanded
    to fire from cannons and rifles, which of course they were unable to
    do. The soldiers, discouraged, retreated in great disorder. Thus Simeon
    brought upon himself the terrible disgrace of defeat. His estate was
    confiscated, and to-morrow he is to be executed. All that remains for
    me to do, therefore," concluded the young devil, "is to release him
    to-morrow morning. Now, then, who wants my assistance?"

    The second small devil (from Tarras) then related his story.

    "I do not need any help," he began. "My business is also all right. My
    work with Tarras will be finished in one week. In the first place I made
    him grow thin. He afterward became so covetous that he wanted to possess
    everything he saw, and he spent all the money he had in the purchase
    of immense quantities of goods. When his capital was gone he still
    continued to buy with borrowed money, and has become involved in such
    difficulties that he cannot free himself. At the end of one week the
    date for the payment of his notes will have expired, and, his goods
    being seized upon, he will become a bankrupt; and he also will return to
    his father."

    At the conclusion of this narrative they inquired of the third devil how
    things had fared between him and Ivan.

    "Well," said he, "my report is not so encouraging. The first thing I did
    was to spit into his jug of quass [a sour drink made from rye],
    which made him sick at his stomach. He afterward went to plow his
    summer-fallow, but I made the soil so hard that the plow could scarcely
    penetrate it. I thought the Fool would not succeed, but he started to
    work nevertheless. Moaning with pain, he still continued to labor. I
    broke one plow, but he replaced it with another, fixing it securely, and
    resumed work. Going beneath the surface of the ground I took hold of the
    plowshares, but did not succeed in stopping Ivan. He pressed so hard,
    and the colter was so sharp, that my hands were cut; and despite my
    utmost efforts, he went over all but a small portion of the field."

    He concluded with: "Come, brothers, and help me, for if we do not
    conquer him our whole enterprise will be a failure. If the Fool is
    permitted successfully to conduct his farming, they will have no need,
    for he will support his brothers."


    Ivan having succeeded in plowing all but a small portion of his land, he
    returned the next day to finish it. The pain in his stomach continued,
    but he felt that he must go on with his work. He tried to start his
    plow, but it would not move; it seemed to have struck a hard root. It
    was the small devil in the ground who had wound his feet around the
    plowshares and held them.

    "This is strange," thought Ivan. "There were never any roots here
    before, and this is surely one."

    Ivan put his hand in the ground, and, feeling something soft, grasped
    and pulled it out. It was like a root in appearance, but seemed
    to possess life. Holding it up he saw that it was a little devil.
    Disgusted, he exclaimed, "See the nasty thing," and he proceeded to
    strike it a blow, intending to kill it, when the young devil cried out:

    "Do not kill me, and I will grant your every wish."

    "What can you do for me?"

    "Tell me what it is you most wish for," the little devil replied.

    Ivan, peasant-fashion, scratched the back of his head as he thought, and
    finally he said:

    "I am dreadfully sick at my stomach. Can you cure me?"

    "I can," the little devil said.

    "Then do so."

    The little devil bent toward the earth and began searching for roots,
    and when he found them he gave them to Ivan, saying: "If you will
    swallow some of these you will be immediately cured of whatsoever
    disease you are afflicted with."

    Ivan did as directed, and obtained instant relief.

    "I beg of you to let me go now," the little devil pleaded; "I will pass
    into the earth, never to return."

    "Very well; you may go, and God bless you;" and as Ivan pronounced the
    name of God, the small devil disappeared into the earth like a flash,
    and only a slight opening in the ground remained.

    Ivan placed in his hat what roots he had left, and proceeded to plow.
    Soon finishing his work, he turned his plow over and returned home.

    When he reached the house he found his brother Simeon and his wife
    seated at the supper-table. His estate had been confiscated, and he
    himself had barely escaped execution by making his way out of prison,
    and having nothing to live upon had come back to his father for support.

    Turning to Ivan he said: "I came to ask you to care for us until I can
    find something to do."

    "Very well," Ivan replied; "you may remain with us."

    Just as Ivan was about to sit down to the table Simeon's wife made a wry
    face, indicating that she did not like the smell of Ivan's sheep-skin
    coat; and turning to her husband she said, "I shall not sit at the table
    with a moujik [peasant] who smells like that."

    Simeon the soldier turned to his brother and said: "My lady objects to
    the smell of your clothes. You may eat in the porch."

    Ivan said: "Very well, it is all the same to me. I will soon have to go
    and feed my horse any way."

    Ivan took some bread in one hand, and his kaftan (coat) in the other,
    and left the room.


    The small devil finished with Simeon that night, and according to
    agreement went to the assistance of his comrade who had charge of
    Ivan, that he might help to conquer the Fool. He went to the field and
    searched everywhere, but could find nothing but the hole through which
    the small devil had disappeared.

    "Well, this is strange," he said; "something must have happened to my
    companion, and I will have to take his place and continue the work he
    began. The Fool is through with his plowing, so I must look about me
    for some other means of compassing his destruction. I must overflow his
    meadow and prevent him from cutting the grass."

    The little devil accordingly overflowed the meadow with muddy water,
    and, when Ivan went at dawn next morning with his scythe set and
    sharpened and tried to mow the grass, he found that it resisted all his
    efforts and would not yield to the implement as usual.

    Many times Ivan tried to cut the grass, but always without success. At
    last, becoming weary of the effort, he decided to return home and have
    his scythe again sharpened, and also to procure a quantity of bread,
    saying: "I will come back here and will not leave until I have mown all
    the meadow, even if it should take a whole week."

    Hearing this, the little devil became thoughtful, saying: "That Ivan is
    a koolak [hard case], and I must think of some other way of conquering

    Ivan soon returned with his sharpened scythe and started to mow.

    The small devil hid himself in the grass, and as the point of the scythe
    came down he buried it in the earth and made it almost impossible for
    Ivan to move the implement. He, however, succeeded in mowing all but
    one small spot in the swamp, where again the small devil hid himself,
    saying: "Even if he should cut my hands I will prevent him from
    accomplishing his work."

    When Ivan came to the swamp he found that the grass was not very thick.
    Still, the scythe would not work, which made him so angry that he worked
    with all his might, and one blow more powerful than the others cut off a
    portion of the small devil's tail, who had hidden himself there.

    Despite the little devil's efforts he succeeded in finishing his work,
    when he returned home and ordered his sister to gather up the grass
    while he went to another field to cut rye. But the devil preceded him
    there, and fixed the rye in such a manner that it was almost impossible
    for Ivan to cut it; however, after continuous hard labor he succeeded,
    and when he was through with the rye he said to himself: "Now I will
    start to mow oats."

    On hearing this, the little devil thought to himself: "I could not
    prevent him from mowing the rye, but I will surely stop him from mowing
    the oats when the morning comes."

    Early next day, when the devil came to the field, he found that the oats
    had been already mowed. Ivan did it during the night, so as to avoid
    the loss that might have resulted from the grain being too ripe and dry.
    Seeing that Ivan again had escaped him, the little devil became greatly
    enraged, saying:

    "He cut me all over and made me tired, that fool. I did not meet such
    misfortune even on the battle-field. He does not even sleep;" and the
    devil began to swear. "I cannot follow him," he continued. "I will go
    now to the heaps and make everything rotten."

    Accordingly he went to a heap of the new-mown grain and began his
    fiendish work. After wetting it he built a fire and warmed himself, and
    soon was fast asleep.

    Ivan harnessed his horse, and, with his sister, went to bring the rye
    home from the field.

    After lifting a couple of sheaves from the first heap his pitchfork came
    into contact with the little devil's back, which caused the latter to
    howl with pain and to jump around in every direction. Ivan exclaimed:

    "See here! What nastiness! You again here?"

    "I am another one!" said the little devil. "That was my brother. I am
    the one who was sent to your brother Simeon."

    "Well," said Ivan, "it matters not who you are. I will fix you all the

    As Ivan was about to strike the first blow the devil pleaded: "Let me go
    and I will do you no more harm. I will do whatever you wish."

    "What can you do for me?" asked Ivan.

    "I can make soldiers from almost anything."

    "And what will they be good for?"

    "Oh, they will do everything for you!"

    "Can they sing?"

    "They can."

    "Well, make them."

    "Take a bunch of straw and scatter it on the ground, and see if each
    straw will not turn into a soldier."

    Ivan shook the straws on the ground, and, as he expected, each straw
    turned into a soldier, and they began marching with a band at their

    "Ishty [look you], that was well done! How it will delight the village
    maidens!" he exclaimed.

    The small devil now said: "Let me go; you do not need me any longer."

    But Ivan said: "No, I will not let you go just yet. You have converted
    the straw into soldiers, and now I want you to turn them again into
    straw, as I cannot afford to lose it, but I want it with the grain on."

    The devil replied: "Say: 'So many soldiers, so much straw.'"

    Ivan did as directed, and got back his rye with the straw.

    The small devil again begged for his release.

    Ivan, taking him from the pitchfork, said: "With God's blessing you may
    depart"; and, as before at the mention of God's name, the little devil
    was hurled into the earth like a flash, and nothing was left but the
    hole to show where he had gone.

    Soon afterward Ivan returned home, to find his brother Tarras and his
    wife there. Tarras-Briukhan could not pay his debts, and was forced to
    flee from his creditors and seek refuge under his father's roof. Seeing
    Ivan, he said: "Well, Ivan, may we remain here until I start in some new

    Ivan replied as he had before to Simeon: "Yes, you are perfectly welcome
    to remain here as long as it suits you."

    With that announcement he removed his coat and seated himself at the
    supper-table with the others. But Tarras-Briukhan's wife objected to the
    smell of his clothes, saying: "I cannot eat with a fool; neither can I
    stand the smell."

    Then Tarras-Briukhan said: "Ivan, from your clothes there comes a bad
    smell; go and eat by yourself in the porch."

    "Very well," said Ivan; and he took some bread and went out as ordered,
    saying, "It is time for me to feed my mare."


    The small devil who had charge of Tarras finished with him that night,
    and according to agreement proceeded to the assistance of the other two
    to help them conquer Ivan. Arriving at the plowed field he looked
    around for his comrades, but found only the hole through which one had
    disappeared; and on going to the meadow he discovered the severed tail
    of the other, and in the rye-field he found yet another hole.

    "Well," he thought, "it is quite clear that my comrades have met with
    some great misfortune, and that I will have to take their places and
    arrange the feud between the brothers."

    The small devil then went in search of Ivan. But he, having finished
    with the field, was nowhere to be found. He had gone to the forest to
    cut logs to build homes for his brothers, as they found it inconvenient
    for so many to live under the same roof.

    The small devil at last discovered his whereabouts, and going to the
    forest climbed into the branches of the trees and began to interfere
    with Ivan's work. Ivan cut down a tree, which failed, however, to fall
    to the ground, becoming entangled in the branches of other trees; yet he
    succeeded in getting it down after a hard struggle. In chopping down the
    next tree he met with the same difficulties, and also with the third.
    Ivan had supposed he could cut down fifty trees in a day, but he
    succeeded in chopping but ten before darkness put an end to his labors
    for a time. He was now exhausted, and, perspiring profusely, he sat down
    alone in the woods to rest. He soon after resumed his work, cutting down
    one more tree; but the effort gave him a pain in his back, and he was
    obliged to rest again. Seeing this, the small devil was full of joy.

    "Well," he thought, "now he is exhausted and will stop work, and I will
    rest also." He then seated himself on some branches and rejoiced.

    Ivan again arose, however, and, taking his axe, gave the tree a terrific
    blow from the opposite side, which felled it instantly to the ground,
    carrying the little devil with it; and Ivan, proceeding to cut the
    branches, found the devil alive. Very much astonished, Ivan exclaimed:

    "Look you! Such nastiness! Are you again here?"

    "I am another one," replied the devil. "I was with your brother Tarras."

    "Well," said Ivan, "that makes no difference; I will fix you." And he
    was about to strike him a blow with the axe when the devil pleaded:

    "Do not kill me, and whatever you wish you shall have."

    Ivan asked, "What can you do?"

    "I can make for you all the money you wish."

    Ivan then told the devil he might proceed, whereupon the latter began to
    explain to him how he might become rich.

    "Take," said he to Ivan, "the leaves of this oak tree and rub them in
    your hands, and the gold will fall to the ground."

    Ivan did as he was directed, and immediately the gold began to drop
    about his feet; and he remarked:

    "This will be a fine trick to amuse the village boys with."

    "Can I now take my departure?" asked the devil, to which Ivan replied,
    "With God's blessing you may go."

    At the mention of the name of God, the devil disappeared into the earth.


    The brothers, having finished their houses, moved into them and lived
    apart from their father and brother. Ivan, when he had completed his
    plowing, made a great feast, to which he invited his brothers, telling
    them that he had plenty of beer for them to drink. The brothers,
    however, declined Ivan's hospitality, saying, "We have seen the beer
    moujiks drink, and want none of it."

    Ivan then gathered around him all the peasants in the village and
    with them drank beer until he became intoxicated, when he joined the
    Khorovody (a street gathering of the village boys and girls, who sing
    songs), and told them they must sing his praises, saying that in return
    he would show them such sights as they had never before seen in their
    lives. The little girls laughed and began to sing songs praising Ivan,
    and when they had finished they said: "Very well; now give us what you
    said you would."

    Ivan replied, "I will soon show you," and, taking an empty bag in his
    hand, he started for the woods. The little girls laughed as they said,
    "What a fool he is!" and resuming their play they forgot all about him.

    Some time after Ivan suddenly appeared among them carrying in his hand
    the bag, which was now filled.

    "Shall I divide this with you?" he said.

    "Yes; divide!" they sang in chorus.

    So Ivan put his hand into the bag and drew it out full of gold coins,
    which he scattered among them.

    "Batiushka," they cried as they ran to gather up the precious pieces.

    The moujiks then appeared on the scene and began to fight among
    themselves for the possession of the yellow objects. In the melee one
    old woman was nearly crushed to death.

    Ivan laughed and was greatly amused at the sight of so many persons
    quarrelling over a few pieces of gold.

    "Oh! you duratchki" (little fools), he said, "why did you almost crush
    the life out of the old grandmother? Be more gentle. I have plenty more,
    and I will give them to you;" whereupon he began throwing about more of
    the coins.

    The people gathered around him, and Ivan continued throwing until he
    emptied his bag. They clamored for more, but Ivan replied: "The gold
    is all gone. Another time I will give you more. Now we will resume our
    singing and dancing."

    The little children sang, but Ivan said to them, "Your songs are no

    The children said, "Then show us how to sing better."

    To this Ivan replied, "I will show you people who can sing better than
    you." With that remark Ivan went to the barn and, securing a bundle
    of straw, did as the little devil had directed him; and presently a
    regiment of soldiers appeared in the village street, and he ordered them
    to sing and dance.

    The people were astonished and could not understand how Ivan had
    produced the strangers.

    The soldiers sang for some time, to the great delight of the villagers;
    and when Ivan commanded them to stop they instantly ceased.

    Ivan then ordered them off to the barn, telling the astonished and
    mystified moujiks that they must not follow him. Reaching the barn,
    he turned the soldiers again into straw and went home to sleep off the
    effects of his debauch.


    The next morning Ivan's exploits were the talk of the village, and news
    of the wonderful things he had done reached the ears of his brother
    Simeon, who immediately went to Ivan to learn all about it.

    "Explain to me," he said; "from whence did you bring the soldiers, and
    where did you take them?"

    "And what do you wish to know for?" asked Ivan.

    "Why, with soldiers we can do almost anything we wish--whole kingdoms
    can be conquered," replied Simeon.

    This information greatly surprised Ivan, who said: "Well, why did you
    not tell me about this before? I can make as many as you want."

    Ivan then took his brother to the barn, but he said: "While I am willing
    to create the soldiers, you must take them away from here; for if it
    should become necessary to feed them, all the food in the village would
    last them only one day."

    Simeon promised to do as Ivan wished, whereupon Ivan proceeded to
    convert the straw into soldiers. Out of one bundle of straw he made an
    entire regiment; in fact, so many soldiers appeared as if by magic that
    there was not a vacant spot in the field.

    Turning to Simeon Ivan said, "Well, is there a sufficient number?"

    Beaming with joy, Simeon replied: "Enough! enough! Thank you, Ivan!"

    "Glad you are satisfied," said Ivan, "and if you wish more I will make
    them for you. I have plenty of straw now."

    Simeon divided his soldiers into battalions and regiments, and after
    having drilled them he went forth to fight and to conquer.

    Simeon had just gotten safely out of the village with his soldiers when
    Tarras, the other brother, appeared before Ivan--he also having heard
    of the previous day's performance and wanting to learn the secret of
    his power. He sought Ivan, saying: "Tell me the secret of your supply of
    gold, for if I had plenty of money I could with its assistance gather in
    all the wealth in the world."

    Ivan was greatly surprised on hearing this statement, and said: "You
    might have told me this before, for I can obtain for you as much money
    as you wish."

    Tarras was delighted, and he said, "You might get me about three

    "Well," said Ivan, "we will go to the woods, or, better still, we
    will harness the horse, as we could not possibly carry so much money

    The brothers went to the woods and Ivan proceeded to gather the oak
    leaves, which he rubbed between his hands, the dust falling to the
    ground and turning into gold pieces as quickly as it fell.

    When quite a pile had accumulated Ivan turned to Tarras and asked if he
    had rubbed enough leaves into money, whereupon Tarras replied: "Thank
    you, Ivan; that will be sufficient for this time."

    Ivan then said: "If you wish more, come to me and I will rub as much as
    you want, for there are plenty of leaves."

    Tarras, with his tarantas (wagon) filled with gold, rode away to the
    city to engage in trade and increase his wealth; and thus both brothers
    went their way, Simeon to fight and Tarras to trade.

    Simeon's soldiers conquered a kingdom for him and Tarras-Briukhan made
    plenty of money.

    Some time afterward the two brothers met and confessed to each other
    the source from whence sprang their prosperity, but they were not yet

    Simeon said: "I have conquered a kingdom and enjoy a very pleasant life,
    but I have not sufficient money to procure food for my soldiers;" while
    Tarras confessed that he was the possessor of enormous wealth, but the
    care of it caused him much uneasiness.

    "Let us go again to our brother," said Simeon; "I will order him to make
    more soldiers and will give them to you, and you may then tell him that
    he must make more money so that we can buy food for them."

    They went again to Ivan, and Simeon said: "I have not sufficient
    soldiers; I want you to make me at least two divisions more." But Ivan
    shook his head as he said: "I will not create soldiers for nothing; you
    must pay me for doing it."

    "Well, but you promised," said Simeon.

    "I know I did," replied Ivan; "but I have changed my mind since that

    "But, fool, why will you not do as you promised?"

    "For the reason that your soldiers kill men, and I will not make any
    more for such a cruel purpose." With this reply Ivan remained stubborn
    and would not create any more soldiers.

    Tarras-Briukhan next approached Ivan and ordered him to make more money;
    but, as in the case of Tarras, Ivan only shook his head, as he said:
    "I will not make you any money unless you pay me for doing it. I cannot
    work without pay."

    Tarras then reminded him of his promise.

    "I know I promised," replied Ivan; "but still I must refuse to do as you

    "But why, fool, will you not fulfill your promise?" asked Tarras.

    "For the reason that your gold was the means of depriving Mikhailovna of
    her cow."

    "But how did that happen?" inquired Tarras.

    "It happened in this way," said Ivan. "Mikhailovna always kept a cow,
    and her children had plenty of milk to drink; but some time ago one of
    her boys came to me to beg for some milk, and I asked, 'Where is your
    cow?' when he replied, 'A clerk of Tarras-Briukhan came to our home
    and offered three gold pieces for her. Our mother could not resist the
    temptation, and now we have no milk to drink. I gave you the gold pieces
    for your pleasure, and you put them to such poor use that I will not
    give you any more.'"

    The brothers, on hearing this, took their departure to discuss as to the
    best plan to pursue in regard to a settlement of their troubles.

    Simeon said: "Let us arrange it in this way: I will give you the half of
    my kingdom, and soldiers to keep guard over your wealth; and you give me
    money to feed the soldiers in my half of the kingdom."

    To this arrangement Tarras agreed, and both the brothers became rulers
    and very happy.


    Ivan remained on the farm and worked to support his father, mother, and
    dumb sister. Once it happened that the old dog, which had grown up on
    the farm, was taken sick, when Ivan thought he was dying, and, taking
    pity on the animal, placed some bread in his hat and carried it to him.
    It happened that when he turned out the bread the root which the little
    devil had given him fell out also. The old dog swallowed it with the
    bread and was almost instantly cured, when he jumped up and began to wag
    his tail as an expression of joy. Ivan's father and mother, seeing
    the dog cured so quickly, asked by what means he had performed such a

    Ivan replied: "I had some roots which would cure any disease, and the
    dog swallowed one of them."

    It happened about that time that the Czar's daughter became ill, and her
    father had it announced in every city, town, and village that whosoever
    would cure her would be richly rewarded; and if the lucky person should
    prove to be a single man he would give her in marriage to him.

    This announcement, of course, appeared in Ivan's village.

    Ivan's father and mother called him and said: "If you have any of those
    wonderful roots, go and cure the Czar's daughter. You will be much
    happier for having performed such a kind act--indeed, you will be made
    happy for all your after life."

    "Very well," said Ivan; and he immediately made ready for the journey.
    As he reached the porch on his way out he saw a poor woman standing
    directly in his path and holding a broken arm. The woman accosted him,

    "I was told that you could cure me, and will you not please do so, as I
    am powerless to do anything for myself?"

    Ivan replied: "Very well, my poor woman; I will relieve you if I can."

    He produced a root which he handed to the poor woman and told her to
    swallow it.

    She did as Ivan told her and was instantly cured, and went away
    rejoicing that she had recovered the use of her arm.

    Ivan's father and mother came out to wish him good luck on his journey,
    and to them he told the story of the poor woman, saying that he
    had given her his last root. On hearing this his parents were much
    distressed, as they now believed him to be without the means of curing
    the Czar's daughter, and began to scold him.

    "You had pity for a beggar and gave no thought to the Czar's daughter,"
    they said.

    "I have pity for the Czar's daughter also," replied Ivan, after which
    he harnessed his horse to his wagon and took his seat ready for his
    departure; whereupon his parents said: "Where are you going, you
    fool--to cure the Czar's daughter, and without anything to do it with?"

    "Very well," replied Ivan, as he drove away.

    In due time he arrived at the palace, and the moment he appeared on
    the balcony the Czar's daughter was cured. The Czar was overjoyed and
    ordered Ivan to be brought into his presence. He dressed him in the
    richest robes and addressed him as his son-in-law. Ivan was married to
    the Czarevna, and, the Czar dying soon after, Ivan became ruler. Thus
    the three brothers became rulers in different kingdoms.


    The brothers lived and reigned. Simeon, the eldest brother, with his
    straw soldiers took captive the genuine soldiers and trained all alike.
    He was feared by every one.

    Tarras-Briukhan, the other brother, did not squander the gold he
    obtained from Ivan, but instead greatly increased his wealth, and at
    the same time lived well. He kept his money in large trunks, and, while
    having more than he knew what to do with, still continued to collect
    money from his subjects. The people had to work for the money to pay the
    taxes which Tarras levied on them, and life was made burdensome to them.

    Ivan the Fool did not enjoy his wealth and power to the same extent
    as did his brothers. As soon as his father-in-law, the late Czar, was
    buried, he discarded the Imperial robes which had fallen to him and told
    his wife to put them away, as he had no further use for them. Having
    cast aside the insignia of his rank, he once more donned his peasant
    garb and started to work as of old.

    "I felt lonesome," he said, "and began to grow enormously stout, and yet
    I had no appetite, and neither could I sleep."

    Ivan sent for his father, mother, and dumb sister, and brought them to
    live with him, and they worked with him at whatever he chose to do.

    The people soon learned that Ivan was a fool. His wife one day said to
    him, "The people say you are a fool, Ivan."

    "Well, let them think so if they wish," he replied.

    His wife pondered this reply for some time, and at last decided that
    if Ivan was a fool she also was one, and that it would be useless to go
    contrary to her husband, thinking affectionately of the old proverb that
    "where the needle goes there goes the thread also." She therefore cast
    aside her magnificent robes, and, putting them into the trunk
    with Ivan's, dressed herself in cheap clothing and joined her dumb
    sister-in-law, with the intention of learning to work. She succeeded so
    well that she soon became a great help to Ivan.

    Seeing that Ivan was a fool, all the wise men left the kingdom and only
    the fools remained. They had no money, their wealth consisting only
    of the products of their labor. But they lived peacefully together,
    supported themselves in comfort, and had plenty to spare for the needy
    and afflicted.


    The old devil grew tired of waiting for the good news which he expected
    the little devils to bring him. He waited in vain to hear of the ruin of
    the brothers, so he went in search of the emissaries which he had sent
    to perform that work for him. After looking around for some time, and
    seeing nothing but the three holes in the ground, he decided that they
    had not succeeded in their work and that he would have to do it himself.

    The old devil next went in search of the brothers, but he could learn
    nothing of their whereabouts. After some time he found them in their
    different kingdoms, contented and happy. This greatly incensed the
    old devil, and he said, "I will now have to accomplish their mission

    He first visited Simeon the soldier, and appeared before him as a
    voyevoda (general), saying: "You, Simeon, are a great warrior, and I
    also have had considerable experience in warfare, and am desirous of
    serving you."

    Simeon questioned the disguised devil, and seeing that he was an
    intelligent man took him into his service.

    The new General taught Simeon how to strengthen his army until it became
    very powerful. New implements of warfare were introduced.

    Cannons capable of throwing one hundred balls a minute were also
    constructed, and these, it was expected, would be of deadly effect in

    Simeon, on the advice of his new General, ordered all young men above a
    certain age to report for drill. On the same advice Simeon established
    gun-shops, where immense numbers of cannons and rifles were made.

    The next move of the new General was to have Simeon declare war against
    the neighboring kingdom. This he did, and with his immense army marched
    into the adjoining territory, which he pillaged and burned, destroying
    more than half the enemy's soldiers. This so frightened the ruler of
    that country that he willingly gave up half of his kingdom to save the
    other half.

    Simeon, overjoyed at his success, declared his intention of marching
    into Indian territory and subduing the Viceroy of that country.

    But Simeon's intentions reached the ears of the Indian ruler, who
    prepared to do battle with him. In addition to having secured all
    the latest implements of warfare, he added still others of his own
    invention. He ordered all boys over fourteen and all single women to
    be drafted into the army, until its proportions became much larger than
    Simeon's. His cannons and rifles were of the same pattern as Simeon's,
    and he invented a flying-machine from which bombs could be thrown into
    the enemy's camp.

    Simeon went forth to conquer the Viceroy with full confidence in his own
    powers to succeed. This time luck forsook him, and instead of being the
    conqueror he was himself conquered.

    The Indian ruler had so arranged his army that Simeon could not even
    get within shooting distance, while the bombs from the flying-machine
    carried destruction and terror in their path, completely routing his
    army, so that Simeon was left alone.

    The Viceroy took possession of his kingdom and Simeon had to fly for his

    Having finished with Simeon, the old devil next approached Tarras. He
    appeared before him disguised as one of the merchants of his kingdom,
    and established factories and began to make money. The "merchant" paid
    the highest price for everything he purchased, and the people ran after
    him to sell their goods. Through this "merchant" they were enabled to
    make plenty of money, paying up all their arrears of taxes as well as
    the others when they came due.

    Tarras was overjoyed at this condition of affairs and said: "Thanks to
    this merchant, now I will have more money than before, and life will be
    much pleasanter for me."

    He wished to erect new buildings, and advertised for workmen, offering
    the highest prices for all kinds of labor. Tarras thought the people
    would be as anxious to work as formerly, but instead he was much
    surprised to learn that they were working for the "merchant." Thinking
    to induce them to leave the "merchant," he increased his offers, but the
    former, equal to the emergency, also raised the wages of his workmen.
    Tarras, having plenty of money, increased the offers still more; but
    the "merchant" raised them still higher and got the better of him. Thus,
    defeated at every point, Tarras was compelled to abandon the idea of

    Tarras next announced that he intended laying out gardens and erecting
    fountains, and the work was to be commenced in the fall, but no one
    came to offer his services, and again he was obliged to forego his
    intentions. Winter set in, and Tarras wanted some sable fur with which
    to line his great-coat, and he sent his man to procure it for him; but
    the servant returned without it, saying: "There are no sables to be had.
    The 'merchant' has bought them all, paying a very high price for them."

    Tarras needed horses and sent a messenger to purchase them, but he
    returned with the same story as on former occasions--that none were to
    be found, the "merchant" having bought them all to carry water for an
    artificial pond he was constructing. Tarras was at last compelled to
    suspend business, as he could not find any one willing to work for him.
    They had all gone over to the "merchant's" side. The only dealings the
    people had with Tarras were when they went to pay their taxes. His money
    accumulated so fast that he could not find a place to put it, and his
    life became miserable. He abandoned all idea of entering upon the new
    venture, and only thought of how to exist peaceably. This he found
    it difficult to do, for, turn which way he would, fresh obstacles
    confronted him. Even his cooks, coachmen, and all his other servants
    forsook him and joined the "merchant." With all his wealth he had
    nothing to eat, and when he went to market he found the "merchant" had
    been there before him and had bought up all the provisions. Still, the
    people continued to bring him money.

    Tarras at last became so indignant that he ordered the "merchant" out
    of his kingdom. He left, but settled just outside the boundary line, and
    continued his business with the same result as before, and Tarras was
    frequently forced to go without food for days. It was rumored that the
    "merchant" wanted to buy even Tarras himself. On hearing this the latter
    became very much alarmed and could not decide as to the best course to

    About this time his brother Simeon arrived in the kingdom, and said:
    "Help me, for I have been defeated and ruined by the Indian Viceroy."

    Tarras replied: "How can I help you, when I have had no food myself for
    two days?"


    The old devil, having finished with the second brother, went to Ivan the
    Fool. This time he disguised himself as a General, the same as in the
    case of Simeon, and, appearing before Ivan, said: "Get an army together.
    It is disgraceful for the ruler of a kingdom to be without an army. You
    call your people to assemble, and I will form them into a fine large

    Ivan took the supposed General's advice, and said: "Well, you may form
    my people into an army, but you must also teach them to sing the songs I

    The old devil then went through Ivan's kingdom to secure recruits for
    the army, saying: "Come, shave your heads [the heads of recruits are
    always shaved in Russia] and I will give each of you a red hat and
    plenty of vodki" (whiskey).

    At this the fools only laughed, and said: "We can have all the vodki we
    want, for we distill it ourselves; and of hats, our little girls make
    all we want, of any color we please, and with handsome fringes."

    Thus was the devil foiled in securing recruits for his army; so
    he returned to Ivan and said: "Your fools will not volunteer to be
    soldiers. It will therefore be necessary to force them."

    "Very well," replied Ivan, "you may use force if you want to."

    The old devil then announced that all the fools must become soldiers,
    and those who refused, Ivan would punish with death.

    The fools went to the General; and said: "You tell us that Ivan will
    punish with death all those who refuse to become soldiers, but you have
    omitted to state what will be done with us soldiers. We have been told
    that we are only to be killed."

    "Yes, that is true," was the reply.

    The fools on hearing this became stubborn and refused to go.

    "Better kill us now if we cannot avoid death, but we will not become
    soldiers," they declared.

    "Oh! you fools," said the old devil, "soldiers may and may not be
    killed; but if you disobey Ivan's orders you will find certain death at
    his hands."

    The fools remained absorbed in thought for some time and finally went to
    Ivan to question him in regard to the matter.

    On arriving at his house they said: "A General came to us with an order
    from you that we were all to become soldiers, and if we refused you were
    to punish us with death. Is it true?"

    Ivan began to laugh heartily on hearing this, and said: "Well, how I
    alone can punish you with death is something I cannot understand. If I
    was not a fool myself I would be able to explain it to you, but as it is
    I cannot."

    "Well, then, we will not go," they said.

    "Very well," replied Ivan, "you need not become soldiers unless you wish

    The old devil, seeing his schemes about to prove failures, went to the
    ruler of Tarakania and became his friend, saying: "Let us go and
    conquer Ivan's kingdom. He has no money, but he has plenty of cattle,
    provisions, and various other things that would be useful to us."

    The Tarakanian ruler gathered his large army together, and equipping it
    with cannons and rifles, crossed the boundary line into Ivan's kingdom.
    The people went to Ivan and said: "The ruler of Tarakania is here with a
    large army to fight us."

    "Let them come," replied Ivan.

    The Tarakanian ruler, after crossing the line into Ivan's kingdom,
    looked in vain for soldiers to fight against; and waiting some time and
    none appearing, he sent his own warriors to attack the villages.

    They soon reached the first village, which they began to plunder.

    The fools of both sexes looked calmly on, offering not the least
    resistance when their cattle and provisions were being taken from them.
    On the contrary, they invited the soldiers to come and live with them,
    saying: "If you, dear friends, find it is difficult to earn a living in
    your own land, come and live with us, where everything is plentiful."

    The soldiers decided to remain, finding the people happy and prosperous,
    with enough surplus food to supply many of their neighbors. They were
    surprised at the cordial greetings which they everywhere received, and,
    returning to the ruler of Tarakania, they said: "We cannot fight with
    these people--take us to another place. We would much prefer the dangers
    of actual warfare to this unsoldierly method of subduing the village."

    The Tarakanian ruler, becoming enraged, ordered the soldiers to destroy
    the whole kingdom, plunder the villages, burn the houses and provisions,
    and slaughter the cattle.

    "Should you disobey my orders," said he, "I will have every one of you

    The soldiers, becoming frightened, started to do as they were ordered,
    but the fools wept bitterly, offering no resistance, men, women, and
    children all joining in the general lamentation.

    "Why do you treat us so cruelly?" they cried to the invading soldiers.
    "Why do you wish to destroy everything we have? If you have more need
    of these things than we have, why not take them with you and leave us in

    The soldiers, becoming saddened with remorse, refused further to
    pursue their path of destruction--the entire army scattering in many


    The old devil, failing to ruin Ivan's kingdom with soldiers, transformed
    himself into a nobleman, dressed exquisitely, and became one of
    Ivan's subjects, with the intention of compassing the downfall of his
    kingdom--as he had done with that of Tarras.

    The "nobleman" said to Ivan: "I desire to teach you wisdom and to render
    you other service. I will build you a palace and factories."

    "Very well," said Ivan; "you may live with us."

    The next day the "nobleman" appeared on the Square with a sack of gold
    in his hand and a plan for building a house, saying to the people: "You
    are living like pigs, and I am going to teach you how to live decently.
    You are to build a house for me according to this plan. I will
    superintend the work myself, and will pay you for your services in
    gold," showing them at the same time the contents of his sack.

    The fools were amused. They had never before seen any money. Their
    business was conducted entirely by exchange of farm products or by
    hiring themselves out to work by the day in return for whatever they
    most needed. They therefore glanced at the gold pieces with amazement,
    and said, "What nice toys they would be to play with!" In return for the
    gold they gave their services and brought the "nobleman" the produce of
    their farms.

    The old devil was overjoyed as he thought, "Now my enterprise is on a
    fair road and I will be able to ruin the Fool--as I did his brothers."

    The fools obtained sufficient gold to distribute among the entire
    community, the women and young girls of the village wearing much of it
    as ornaments, while to the children they gave some pieces to play with
    on the streets.

    When they had secured all they wanted they stopped working and the
    "noblemen" did not get his house more than half finished. He had neither
    provisions nor cattle for the year, and ordered the people to bring him
    both. He directed them also to go on with the building of the palace and
    factories. He promised to pay them liberally in gold for everything they
    did. No one responded to his call--only once in awhile a little boy or
    girl would call to exchange eggs for his gold.

    Thus was the "nobleman" deserted, and, having nothing to eat, he went
    to the village to procure some provisions for his dinner. He went to
    one house and offered gold in return for a chicken, but was refused, the
    owner saying: "We have enough of that already and do not want any more."

    He next went to a fish-woman to buy some herring, when she, too, refused
    to accept his gold in return for fish, saying: "I do not wish it, my
    dear man; I have no children to whom I can give it to play with. I have
    three pieces which I keep as curiosities only."

    He then went to a peasant to buy bread, but he also refused to accept
    the gold. "I have no use for it," said he, "unless you wish to give it
    for Christ's sake; then it will be a different matter, and I will tell
    my baba [old woman] to cut a piece of bread for you."

    The old devil was so angry that he ran away from the peasant, spitting
    and cursing as he went.

    Not only did the offer to accept in the name of Christ anger him, but
    the very mention of the name was like the thrust of a knife in his

    The old devil did not succeed in getting any bread, and in his efforts
    to secure other articles of food he met with the same failure. The
    people had all the gold they wanted and what pieces they had they
    regarded as curiosities. They said to the old devil: "If you bring us
    something else in exchange for food, or come to ask for Christ's sake,
    we will give you all you want."

    But the old devil had nothing but gold, and was too lazy to work;
    and being unable to accept anything for Christ's sake, he was greatly

    "What else do you want?" he said. "I will give you gold with which you
    can buy everything you want, and you need labor no longer."

    But the fools would not accept his gold, nor listen to him. Thus the old
    devil was obliged to go to sleep hungry.

    Tidings of this condition of affairs soon reached the ears of Ivan. The
    people went to him and said: "What shell we do? This nobleman appeared
    among us; he is well dressed; he wishes to eat and drink of the best,
    but is unwilling to work, and does not beg for food for Christ's sake.
    He only offers every one gold pieces. At first we gave him everything he
    wanted, taking the gold pieces in exchange just as curiosities; but
    now we have enough of them and refuse to accept any more from him. What
    shall we do with him? he may die of hunger!"

    Ivan heard all they had to say, and told them to employ him as a
    shepherd, taking turns in doing so.

    The old devil saw no other way out of the difficulty and was obliged to

    It soon came the old devil's turn to go to Ivan's house. He went there
    to dinner and found Ivan's dumb sister preparing the meal. She was often
    cheated by the lazy people, who while they did not work, yet ate up all
    the gruel. But she learned to know the lazy people from the condition of
    their hands. Those with great welts on their hands she invited first
    to the table, and those having smooth white hands had to take what was

    The old devil took a seat at the table, but the dumb girl, taking his
    hands, looked at them, and seeing them white and clean, and with long
    nails, swore at him and put him from the table.

    Ivan's wife said to the old devil: "You must excuse my sister-in-law;
    she will not allow any one to sit at the table whose hands have not been
    hardened by toil, so you will have to wait until the dinner is over and
    then you can have what is left. With it you must be satisfied."

    The old devil was very much offended that he was made to eat with
    "pigs," as he expressed it, and complained to Ivan, saying: "The foolish
    law you have in your kingdom, that all persons must work, is surely the
    invention of fools. People who work for a living are not always forced
    to labor with their hands. Do you think wise men labor so?"

    Ivan replied: "Well, what do fools know about it? We all work with our

    "And for that reason you are fools," replied the devil. "I can teach you
    how to use your brains, and you will find such labor more beneficial."

    Ivan was surprised at hearing this, and said:

    "Well, it is perhaps not without good reason that we are called fools."

    "It is not so easy to work with the brain," the old devil said.
    "You will not give me anything to eat because my hands have not the
    appearance of being toil-hardened, but you must understand that it is
    much harder to do brain-work, and sometimes the head feels like bursting
    with the effort it is forced to make."

    "Then why do you not select some light work that you can perform with
    your hands?" Ivan asked.

    The devil said: "I torment myself with brain-work because I have pity
    for you fools, for, if I did not torture myself, people like you would
    remain fools for all eternity. I have exercised my brain a great deal
    during my life, and now I am able to teach you."

    Ivan was greatly surprised and said: "Very well; teach us, so that when
    our hands are tired we can use our heads to replace them."

    The devil promised to instruct the people, and Ivan announced the fact
    throughout his kingdom.

    The devil was willing to teach all those who came to him how to use the
    head instead of the hands, so as to produce more with the former than
    with the latter.

    In Ivan's kingdom there was a high tower, which was reached by a long,
    narrow ladder leading up to the balcony, and Ivan told the old devil
    that from the top of the tower every one could see him.

    So the old devil went up to the balcony and addressed the people.

    The fools came in great crowds to hear what the old devil had to say,
    thinking that he really meant to tell them how to work with the head.
    But the old devil only told them in words what to do, and did not give
    them any practical instruction. He said that men working only with their
    hands could not make a living. The fools did not understand what he
    said to them and looked at him in amazement, and then departed for their
    daily work.

    The old devil addressed them for two days from the balcony, and at the
    end of that time, feeling hungry, he asked the people to bring him some
    bread. But they only laughed at him and told him if he could work better
    with his head than with his hands he could also find bread for himself.
    He addressed the people for yet another day, and they went to hear him
    from curiosity, but soon left him to return to their work.

    Ivan asked, "Well, did the nobleman work with his head?"

    "Not yet," they said; "so far he has only talked."

    One day, while the old devil was standing on the balcony, he became
    weak, and, falling down, hurt his head against a pole.

    Seeing this, one of the fools ran to Ivan's wife and said, "The
    gentleman has at last commenced to work with his head."

    She ran to the field to tell Ivan, who was much surprised, and said,
    "Let us go and see him."

    He turned his horses' heads in the direction of the tower, where the old
    devil remained weak from hunger and was still suspended from the pole,
    with his body swaying back and forth and his head striking the lower
    part of the pole each time it came in contact with it. While Ivan
    was looking, the old devil started down the steps head-first--as they
    supposed, to count them.

    "Well," said Ivan, "he told the truth after all--that sometimes from
    this kind of work the head bursts. This is far worse than welts on the

    The old devil fell to the ground head-foremost. Ivan approached him,
    but at that instant the ground opened and the devil disappeared, leaving
    only a hole to show where he had gone.

    Ivan scratched his head and said: "See here; such nastiness! This is yet
    another devil. He looks like the father of the little ones."

    Ivan still lives, and people flock to his kingdom. His brothers come to
    him and he feeds them.

    To every one who comes to him and says, "Give us food," he replies:
    "Very well; you are welcome. We have plenty of everything."

    There is only one unchangeable custom observed in Ivan's kingdom: The
    man with toil-hardened hands is always given a seat at the table, while
    the possessor of soft white hands must be contented with what is left.
    If you're writing a Ivan the Fool essay and need some advice, post your Leo Tolstoy essay question on our Facebook page where fellow bookworms are always glad to help!

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