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    Last Words of Great Men

    by Mark Twain
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    [From the Buffalo Express, September 11, 1889.]

    Marshal Neil's last words were: "L'armee fran-caise!" (The French

    What a sad thing it is to see a man close a grand career with a
    plagiarism in his mouth. Napoleon's last words were: "Tete d'armee."
    (Head of the army.) Neither of those remarks amounts to anything as
    "last words," and reflect little credit upon the utterers.

    A distinguished man should be as particular about his last words as he is
    about his last breath. He should write them out on a slip of paper and
    take the judgment of his friends on them. He should never leave such a
    thing to the last hour of his life, and trust to an intellectual spirit
    at the last moment to enable him to say something smart with his latest
    gasp and launch into eternity with grandeur. No--a man is apt to be too
    much fagged and exhausted, both in body and mind, at such a time, to be
    reliable; and maybe the very thing he wants to say, he cannot think of to
    save him; and besides there are his weeping friends bothering around;
    and worse than all as likely as not he may have to deliver his last gasp
    before he is expecting to. A man cannot always expect to think of a
    natty thing to say under such circumstances, and so it is pure egotistic
    ostentation to put it off. There is hardly a case on record where a man
    came to his last moment unprepared and said a good thing hardly a case
    where a man trusted to that last moment and did not make a solemn botch
    of it and go out of the world feeling absurd.

    Now there was Daniel Webster. Nobody could tell him anything. He was
    not afraid. He could do something neat when the time came. And how did
    it turn out? Why, his will had to be fixed over; and then all the
    relations came; and first one thing and then another interfered, till at
    last he only had a chance to say, "I still live," and up he went.

    Of course he didn't still live, because he died--and so he might as well
    have kept his last words to himself as to have gone and made such a
    failure of it as that. A week before that fifteen minutes of calm
    reflection would have enabled that man to contrive some last words that
    would have been a credit to himself and a comfort to his family for
    generations to come.

    And there was John Quincy Adams. Relying on his splendid abilities and
    his coolness in emergencies, he trusted to a happy hit at the last moment
    to carry him through, and what was the result? Death smote him in the
    House of Representatives, and he observed, casually, "This is the last of
    earth." The last of earth! Why "the last of earth" when there was so
    much more left? If he had said it was the last rose of summer or the
    last run of shad, it would have had as much point in it. What he meant
    to say was, "Adam was the first and Adams is the last of earth," but he
    put it off a trifle too long, and so he had to go with that unmeaning
    observation on his lips.

    And there we have Napoleon's "Tete d'armee." That don't mean anything.
    Taken by itself, "Head of the army," is no more important than "Head of
    the police." And yet that was a man who could have said a good thing if
    he had barred out the doctor and studied over it a while. Marshal Neil,
    with half a century at his disposal, could not dash off anything better
    in his last moments than a poor plagiarism of another man's words, which
    were not worth plagiarizing in the first place. "The French army."
    Perfectly irrelevant--perfectly flat utterly pointless. But if he had
    closed one eye significantly, and said, "The subscriber has made it
    lively for the French army," and then thrown a little of the comic into
    his last gasp, it would have been a thing to remember with satisfaction
    all the rest of his life. I do wish our great men would quit saying
    these flat things just at the moment they die. Let us have their
    next-to-the-last words for a while, and see if we cannot patch up from
    them something that will be more satisfactory.

    The public does not wish to be outraged in this way all the time.

    But when we come to call to mind the last words of parties who took the
    trouble to make the proper preparation for the occasion, we immediately
    notice a happy difference in the result.

    There was Chesterfield. Lord Chesterfield had laboured all his life to
    build up the most shining reputation for affability and elegance of
    speech and manners the world has ever seen. And could you suppose he
    failed to appreciate the efficiency of characteristic "last words," in
    the matter of seizing the successfully driven nail of such a reputation
    and clinching on the other side for ever? Not he. He prepared himself.
    He kept his eye on the clock and his finger on his pulse. He awaited his
    chance. And at last, when he knew his time was come, he pretended to
    think a new visitor had entered, and so, with the rattle in his throat
    emphasised for dramatic effect, he said to the servant, "Shin around,
    John, and get the gentleman a chair." And so he died, amid thunders of

    Next we have Benjamin Franklin. Franklin, the author of Poor Richard's
    quaint sayings; Franklin the immortal axiom-builder, who used to sit up
    at nights reducing the rankest old threadbare platitudes to crisp and
    snappy maxims that had a nice, varnished, original look in their
    regimentals; who said, "Virtue is its own reward;" who said,
    "Procrastination is the thief of time;" who said, "Time and tide wait for
    no man" and "Necessity is the mother of invention;" good old Franklin,
    the Josh Billings of the eighteenth century--though, sooth to say, the
    latter transcends him in proverbial originality as much as he falls short
    of him in correctness of orthography. What sort of tactics did Franklin
    pursue? He pondered over his last words for as much as two weeks, and
    then when the time came, he said, "None but the brave deserve the fair,"
    and died happy. He could not have said a sweeter thing if he had lived
    till he was an idiot.

    Byron made a poor business of it, and could not think of anything to say,
    at the last moment but, "Augusta--sister--Lady Byron--tell Harriet
    Beecher Stowe"--etc., etc.,--but Shakespeare was ready and said, "England
    expects every man to do his duty!" and went off with splendid eclat.

    And there are other instances of sagacious preparation for a felicitous
    closing remark. For instance:

    Joan of Arc said, "Tramp, tramp, tramp the boys are marching."

    Alexander the Great said, "Another of those Santa Cruz punches, if you

    The Empress Josephine said, "Not for Jo-" and could get no further.

    Cleopatra said, "The Old Guard dies, but never surrenders."

    Sir Walter Raleigh said, "Executioner, can I take your whetstone a
    moment, please?" though what for is not clear.

    John Smith said, "Alas, I am the last of my race."

    Queen Elizabeth said, "Oh, I would give my kingdom for one moment more
    --I have forgotten my last words."

    And Red Jacket, the noblest Indian brave that ever wielded a tomahawk in
    defence of a friendless and persecuted race, expired with these touching
    words upon his lips, "Wawkawampanoosucwinnebayowallazvsagamoresa-
    skatchewan." There was not a dry eye in the wigwam.

    Let not this lesson be lost upon our public men. Let them take a healthy
    moment for preparation, and contrive some last words that shall be neat
    and to the point. Let Louis Napoleon say,

    "I am content to follow my uncle--still, I do not wish to improve upon
    his last word. Put me down for 'Tete d'armee.'"

    And Garret Davis, "Let me recite the unabridged dictionary."

    And H. G., "I desire, now, to say a few words on political economy."

    And Mr. Bergh, "Only take part of me at a time, if the load will be
    fatiguing to the hearse horses."

    And Andrew Johnson, "I have been an alderman, Member of Congress,
    Governor, Senator, Pres--adieu, you know the rest."

    And Seward., "Alas!-ka."

    And Grant, "O."

    All of which is respectfully submitted, with the most honorable
    M. T.

    P. S.--I am obliged to leave out the illustrations. The artist finds it
    impossible to make a picture of people's last words.
    If you're writing a Last Words of Great Men essay and need some advice, post your Mark Twain essay question on our Facebook page where fellow bookworms are always glad to help!

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